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Simple Approaches to Complete Your Essay Assignment in Brief Time

There are numerous assignments that should be done, however 24 hours appears insufficient to accommodate each assignment, especially essay assignment. In this way, you should discover approach to complete your essay assignment in only a couple of hours. It is conceivable to complete your essay in only a couple of hours and less in the event that you are truly focused. You should do nothing more than write a thesis statement, introductory paragraph, a few body paragraphs and conclusion that wrap your whole essay. Today, I will control you in simple and basic orderly guide on the best way to write a decent essay in a short measure of time. Nonetheless, on the off chance that you can’t bear the cost of your opportunity to write your own essay, you can contract custom essay writing service to offer you some assistance in writing academic essays.

Academic-Writing

The initial step is writing each critical purpose of your essay. Ensure that you write each vital point on an unpleasant paper and decide how your essay will stream. You likewise need to decide the objective of your essay.

The following step is writing a decent introduction. This ought to be basic, in conversational tone and not to be too long. You should write why your reader needs to read your essay and what makes your essays fascinating.

The following step is write body paragraph from point on your unpleasant paper. You should clarify each essential point on your unpleasant paper and bolster them with evidence or clarifications. Along these lines, you will have the capacity to write the same number of as you need according to the point.

The following step is concluding the essay. You should wrap your essay with a conclusion that say all the vital point and give conclusion of your essay. Along these lines, your reader will remember everything on your essay and fulfill with your conclusion. Check Writingdeal for easier way to finish your essay.

Write Master’s Thesis In Simple Steps

The most vital assignments on your master system is master’s thesis. A master thesis is the most essential assignment of your graduate work. Writing a master thesis is not as difficult as everybody thinks you should do nothing more than focus on a central thesis address and answered the central thesis address accordingly. You might likewise need to keep research focused, composed and intriguing by writing thesis papers legitimately. Today, I will give you a regulated aide on the best way to write a master’s thesis legitimately. Otherwise, you can simply visit best thesis writing service to help you finish your thesis.

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The first step to write a master’s thesis appropriately is by chooses the central thesis question. You should consider the inquiry for the master’s thesis carefully, because the inquiry will produce how your research will be degree way. A decent master’s thesis inquiry will produce essential research and answer for the individuals from the educational community and society. You should have the capacity to choose a decent master’s thesis address then answer the thesis questions with conviction and clarity in the composed presentation to complete a master’s degree. Along these lines, you should ensure that you give interesting and original thesis question and answer to the body of your research.

The following step is setting up a clear statement of the central thesis question. You should give a clear statement of the central thesis inquiry to clarity the inquiry, problem and how you will answer the central thesis question.

The following step is review any literature and research that related and relevant to your master’s thesis topic, inquiry and problem. Collect any literature and research that related to your master’s thesis and thesis definition. Try to take notes to any key facts or claim that backing or contradict your master’s thesis argument or inquiry.

The following step is conducting the research necessary to answer the central inquiry of your master’s thesis. Give demonstrate and strong argument of your answer to the central thesis question. Clarify clearly about the answer and how you get the answer appropriately. Connect your answer with demonstrate, evident and key facts or claim from literature and research that related and relevant to your master’s thesis. Call degreeway for fastest way to solve your thesis problem and writing.

Line Dance Enhances Children’s Physical Education Programs

Line Dance gets kids’ hearts pumping. There’s never been a better time to infuse physical education programs with creative options. Child obesity rates are rising. Fast food is abundant. And TV and video games offer an ever-present sedentary draw.
Decrease the common complaints of “Why do we have to run again?” and “I forgot my gym clothes!” Hook your students by explaining that the more line dance steps they master, the closer they are to learning the Hip Hop Line Dance, a tricky, fun sequence that they’re sure to replicate after the dismissal bell rings.
• Purchase the rights to a Shawn Trautman learn how to dance DVD and you’ll bring a world-renowned dance instructor to your pupils, on your schedule. Each DVD is filmed in high definition and showcases every step in multiple camera angles, ensuring your students have step-by-step instruction that’s easy to follow.
• The Line Dance DVD collection quickly moves students from step to step, keeping their attention and offering them the chance to dance along with the instructor at the end of each lesson.
• In a mere two hours, your students will feel like line dance experts. Start them off with Line Dance 101, for example, and they’ll leave class knowing more than 30 steps.
• Use line dance as an introduction to couples dancing. During adolescence, kids can feel awkward dancing with the opposite sex. Line dancing provides an effective icebreaker.
Shawn Trautman brings Cotton Eyed Joe, the Electric Slide and many more line dances to gym programs across the country. Discover the Trautman DVD collection and add the lifelong skill of dance to everyday physical education.

Special education funding in California is causing deficit in school district budgets

School districts are required by federal law to pay for a large portion of special education programs and services.  These programs and services cannot be altered or cut in any way because it is federally mandated, unlike all other programs for the rest of the students. The short explanation is that federal law mandates it, as set forth in the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act  [20 USC 1400 et seq.].  This law, also called IDEA, enumerates the required needs for students with disabilities.  We all agree that students with special needs must be accommodated, additional care is necessary.  However, most of us do not know the details of the funding and spending on this issue.   In addition to the IDEA federal mandate, the State of California also sets forth special education funding apportionment in its Assembly Bill 602 SELPA [AB 602].If you read these codes on its face and believe that the state and federal government will fund the programs as set forth in the requirements, then you’re not alone.  Must of us assume that this mandated federal and state law will come from separate federal and state funds.  Most people who I asked assumed that special education is funded entirely by federal government disability funds.  It does make sense since it is a federally mandated requirement.  The state and federal statutes require schools to provide “free and appropriate public education” for special education students.   Here is the shocking news, local school districts are responsible for this “free and appropriate public education.”  In fact, IDEA section 1400(c)(6) cites that states and local education agencies are responsible for providing the education for students with disabilities, but that the Federal Government will have a role [emphasis added] in assisting the state and local education agencies.  If you sample a school district’s budget, you will find for example [PVPUSD] it receives $5,049M from the state [AB 602] in addition to the federal IDEA grant which is approximately $2M.  However, the actual costs for the special education programs in this district total approximately $22M.  This district has reported a deficit spending for special education in the sum of $12.5M which is almost double the amount it receives in funding from the federal government and state, combined.  This school district has to find and fund $12.5M in excess of the sum provided by the government funding.  How could special education needs add up to such a colossal amount and cause such a deficit for local school districts? In the code, you will find that required programs such as one-on-one aids are mandatory for each qualifying special needs child. Transportation, specialized at-home care and a host of other services are also required under the law.  I asked the California Department of Education why local school districts are not receiving more funding for special education requirements.  I asked how the local special education funding from the state is apportioned.  Becky Robinson of the CDE Special Education Department stated that “all funds, federal or state, must be approved by the governor.”  I checked, she is right.  The Budget Act of 2008-2009 AB 1781 (chapter 268) sets forth the budget for special education as determined by the state budget and the governor. At a time when teachers and administrative staff are being laid off en masse, it is difficult to understand why school districts are forced to spend an additional $12.5M on special education program requirements, when state budget cuts are forcing school districts to cut teachers and programs elsewhere.  $12.5M could solve all of the local budget woes and keep the teaching and administrative staff employed for the benefit of the entire school.  The answer is that special education programs are depleting the school districts’ budgets as administrators make cuts to prioritize the federally mandated programs for special education.  Another item for budget in the statute that I should mention, is the special needs education conflict and dispute resolution.  There are law firms that specialize in representing students with disabilities and negotiate the settlement for district’s alleged failure to comply with the established statutes and regulations under the federally mandated IDEA.  This means that the statutes for special education inherently set forth guidelines for legal action following administrative proceedings should a parent identify a violation of their child’s “free and appropriate public education.” Many school districts have greatly suffered from lawsuits brought by parents who claim that their special needs child’s rights were not met under the code.  Case in point, Porter v. Board of Trustees of Manhattan Beach Unified School District et al., 307 F. 3d 1064 (9th Cir. 2002), 537 U.S. 1194, 123 S. Ct. 1303, 154 L. Ed. 2nd 1029 (2003).

In the case of Porter, the parents of a student, who had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, charged that  Manhattan Beach Unified School District failed to provide their child with a “free appropriate public education.”   This lawsuit resulted in the school district paying over $6.7M to the family of the student.  In addition, as part of the settlement, control of the student’s education was transferred to a Special Master, Ivor Weiner, Ph.D., resulting in the cost of just under $1.1M to pay for the education of the student at the direction of the Special Master.

The problem is that whether or not this school district properly complied with the federally mandated programs and services for this student, the school district was forced to make cuts elsewhere to pay for this legal settlement.   Why has the federal government mandated such broad standards for special education and then leave local school districts to oversee, manage and fund these programs?

Since the subject of budgets and special education is not a topic that people are willing to discuss, reform in this regard is unlikely.  Certainly, special education programs and services are not to blame for this problem.  This problem belongs squarely on the lap of the federal government under the mandated IDEA laws.

Special Education in Connecticut

Terminology

The federal law governing special education is called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA.  It is codified in Title 20, United States Code, starting at section 1400.  It was initially passed in 1975.  A number of major reauthorizations have taken place.  The two most recent were in 1997 and in December 2004.  The December 2004 changes took effect, for the most part, on July 1, 2005. The changes made in the 2004 Act are numerous and varied, but perhaps not revolutionary.

In early 2002, President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) which is intended to ensure quality education and a high level of accountability.  Many of the provisions of NCLB had an uncertain impact on IDEA 1997.  Hence, IDEA 2004 attempts to clarify the impact of NCLB.

The IDEA speaks in terms of a State Education Authority (SEA) and a Local Education Authority (LEA).  In Connecticut, the SEA is the State Department of Education.  The LEA is generally the local school district, which is referred to as the district or the Board.  In this context, the Board refers to the district’s administration, not to the actual Board of Education and its elected members.

State and Federal Law

Connecticut passed its special education law in 1967.  The federal Education of All Handicapped Children Act initially passed in 1975.  Hence, the Connecticut act predates the federal.  The federal law did not pre-empt the field.  Rather, federal courts can enforce both federal and relevant state law.  “Relevant state law” is law which is not inconsistent with federally mandated requirements, both substantive and procedural, of the Act, and includes, inter alia, procedural safeguards which are more stringent than required procedures set forth in the federal law.  Burlington v. Department of Education, 736 F.2d 773 (1st Cir. 1984), aff’d 471 U.S. 359 (1985).  For the most part, Connecticut and federal requirements have converged.  Yet, most of the detailed procedures for eligibility and due process stem from Connecticut law, as does the nomenclature.  In Connecticut, there is a Planning and Placement Team (PPT) meeting.  In New York, it is called a Committee on Special Education (CSE) meeting.  In the federal
law, it is called an Individualized Education Plan Team (IEP Team) meeting.

The Connecticut Approach
The Connecticut State Department of Education (SDE) takes a hand-off approach to local school boards.  This compares to New York, where the state department closely regulates most aspects of special education.  The Connecticut SDE advises local school boards on questions, when raised.  Indeed, SDE also provides advice to parents.  The state approves private special education schools, but the approval is largely a matter of seeing if the right boxes are checked, rather than looking at the quality of the education provided.  The state, pursuant to federal law, receives and processes complaints, but appears to be interested only in procedural requirements, avoiding making any comments on the substance of the claim.  And, the state runs the due process and mediation systems.  This is all done by a tiny group of people in Hartford.  The SDE also runs the Special Education Resource Center (SERC), which serves as an information clearinghouse, library, and training center.  As a general rule, the State Department of
Education sees itself as a consultant, rather than as a regulator.

The Special Education Universe in Connecticut

For the 2007-2008 school year, there were 68,989 children in Connecticut who were designated as eligible for special education services.  This number is a drop of 5,000 from five years earlier.  Special education students represent about 12% of the total student population of 574,287.  Districts vary widely in percentages designated as eligible for special education, with some districts near 5% and others over 18%.

Among disabilities, the largest group, comprising 32% of the special education population, consists of students with learning disabilities (LD).  Five years ago, learning disabled students represented 38% of the special education population.  The next largest group, accounting for 21% of the special education population, contains students with speech or language impairments.  Other health impairment (OHI) accounts for 17%, severe emotional disturbance (SED) is 8.5% and intellectual disabilities (ID) are 4%.  Some 6.4% of special education students in Connecticut carry the Autism label.  The racial differences are, however, significant.  The following chart shows the 2007-2008 percentage of each racial/ethnic grouping that has a particular special education designation.

Vocational training in Bengal

The Global Economy which left many people jobless, now made people realized that it is important to have a backup plan. One of the best backup plans is to take vocational training. Undergoing a vocational training, the youngsters now have a path to the success by having a blueprint to their future. Vocational training does not only include theoretical aspects of various employment sectors but also focuses on a specific job sector which focuses mainly on manual skills. So by getting vocational education from a vocational institute, a candidate can have a better successful career. IIIM is well known for vocational training in Bengal as well as communication skills training in India. It is located at AE 369, Salt lake, Sector-1, Kolkata- 700064. For further course related details, log on to: www.iiimlimited.in

In the world of recruitment, job and employment, vocational training and education catch people’s eyes. The main purpose of vocational training is to develop skills of the existing manpower so that it can fulfill the requirement of an unorganized sector. In office jobs, vocational training consists of typewriting, stenography, library assistant, whereas technical or mechanical jobs consist of plumbing, architecture, electrical, electronics etc. People, who want to work in office environments, can choose finance, computer administration, and animation also.

In global companies, a lot of overseas companies take place at flexible hours. The right communication skills training in India not only equips you with the ability to understand and convey your feelings in a better manner but also help to maintain efficient and professional relationships with your colleagues and clients for higher productivity. The other benefit of a good communication skills training programme is that you learn to how to respond and also react in the right and professional manner to another person’s needs. Any employee who wishes to raise the career ladder must be efficient at communication because this is the best way to handle any difficult situation and also develop strategies to tide over the crisis.

Effective communication skills are very much important in a business organization as it helps an employee to communicate in a right manner with the colleagues and clients also. Communication skills training in India is the best ever way by which you can develop your skills and fine-tune your communicative skills also. So, if you are interested in learning vocational training in Bengal as well as communication skills training in India, enroll to IIIM. For details, click on: www.iiimlimited.in

White collar Syndrome in education sector in Zambia

Introduction

The paper sheds some light on white collar jobs in Zambia education in Zambia during the colonial era and the subsequent challenges that the country faced upon attainment of political independence. It is divided into four sections. The first section is the introduction which provides brief information on Zambian education and the definition of white collar job. The next section discusses the main features of both pre-colonial and first republic in the education sector in Zambia. The third section, which is the main thrust of the paper, discusses the origin of white collar syndrome in the education sector during the 1960’s and attempts made by the first republic in addressing white collar syndrome. The conclusion is the last and final section of this paper.

Definition of white collar syndrome and overview of education in Zambia

The term ‘white collar’ was first used by Upton Sinclair in relation to modern clerical, administrative and management workers during the 1930s. Sinclair’s usage is related to the fact that, during most of the 19th and 20th centuries, male office workers in European and American countries almost always had to wear white, collared dress shirts. In another line of thought, Kabaso Sydney (2002:27) describes the term white-collar worker to refer to, “a salaried professional or an educated worker who performs semi-professional office, administrative, and sales coordination tasks, as opposed to a blue-collar worker, whose job requires manual labor.”White-collar work” is an informal term, defined in contrast to “blue-collar work”.

Features of colonial education in Zambia

During the federation, that is the period from 1953 to 1963, segregationist and inequitable patterns of provision for African and European children persisted. In addition, the focus was on primary education, with only limited secondary teacher education for Africans. Coombe (1967) has reported that through his extensive archival research in the Zambian archives, there were deliberate moves on the part of the colonial administration in  northern Rhodesia in the 1930s and thereafter, to limit the provision of secondary education for Africans. The educational system inherited by Zambia at independence was accordingly underdeveloped. This forced the first president of Zambia, Kenneth Kaunda to launch a scathing attack on the British as quoted by Tembo (1978): As far as education is concerned, Britain’s colonial record in Zambia is most criminal. Her colonizers have left the country as the most uneducated and unprepared colony of Britain’s dependencies on the African content (p. xii). It is, therefore, not surprising that: at independence, only 110,200 Africans had completed six years in primary schools, and only 32,000 had completed the full primary course of eight years. At the secondary level, although over 8,000 Africans were enrolled in schools, only 4,420 had passed the Junior Secondary (Form II) Examination and a mere 961 had passed the School Certificate Examination. Only 107 had graduated from university, of whom four were female (Kelly, 1991: 13).

White collar syndrome in the education sector during 1960’s and attempts made by the first republic.

In Zambia the term was a replica of the Europeans and Americans. In particular the term began to be used in Zambia during the colonial era, when most Europeans started to employ Zambians to work as clericals, typist, office orderlies, cleaners and teachers in schools. The onset of the colonial period in the 1800s marked the beginning of the end for traditional African education. According to Fafunwa (1962) European forces, missionaries, and colonialists all came ready and willing to change existing traditions to meet their own needs and ambitions. Bhola (2000) has also argued that ‘the modern sector of  education may have dismissed the traditional culture of  education out of hand, and without thought borrowed indiscriminately from the West, irrelevant ideologies, missions, and methods of adult education …’. What is implied in this statement is that the current adult education curriculum in Africa is still modelled on the colonial one and as such does not serve the immediate needs of the learner in particular and the nation in general. The replacement of the traditional forms of adult education, therefore, brought about challenges to the education system in newly independent Zambia. How did these changes contributed to the white collar syndrome in the education sector? To answer this question, some historical analysis is necessary. Alexander (1971) observed that it was well known that adult education in Africa had been sadly neglected in the past. In colonial times missionaries and education administrators did not normally see the importance of continuing education. UNESCO (1964) in its report on education in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) wrote: An education system is a result of decisions made and designs laid down by past and present governments (p.1). Kelly (1991) admits that the above statement remains as true today as when Radford and his colleagues first wrote it in their report on the future development of the education system of what was then Northern Rhodesia. Several of the concerns that beset the demand for white collar jobs were necessitated by three factors. According to the 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Zambia’s literacy level was estimated at 55.3 %. The report further indicated that the problem of illiteracy continued to be more prevalent among females than males. The report further indicated that about 1 in every 2 females (49.8%) was illiterate as compared to almost 2 in every 5 males (39%) of the same population (MOE, 2008). The high rate of illiteracy has seen contributed to white collar job syndrome in the education sector. In that the Government had to encourage and support all those who finished their school certificates into education system, every one started to embrace adult education. According to Fafunwa (1962) “It was surprising to find a 35 year old doing grade  5, in that, Africans received education opportunities with two hands…”

The first factor was that Zambia needed many educated people to fill up positions that had or were being vacated by expatriates. Kelly (1991) explains that the colonial government had a pervasive concern about the production of an educated cadre that could not be absorbed into productive employment. Additionally, (Okafor, 1971), colonial administrators (not only in the then Northern Rhodesia but throughout Africa) generally preferred the uneducated Africans to the educated ones, who, they feared, tended to take educational planner today have their origin in events that occurred years and even decades before. In that regard, the challenges that the newly independent Zambia faced could be attributed to the education system that existed during the colonial era. The second factor was that the new government during its campaign for political independence, promised to provide more educational opportunities. A crisis of expectation was, therefore, imminent as people expected immediate delivery of more education. Thus this expectation motivated many adults to take part in adult education.

The other factor was that, apart from education being a human right, individuals themselves were keen to go to school and learn. These factors put a lot of pressure on the government to create more opportunities for learning. Indeed, the government saw this high illiteracy rate as an obstacle to economic development (Mulenga, 2000).

The third challenge was relevance of the adult education curriculum. Even after independence, the adult education curriculum available was based on the colonial model. This was the same curriculum which was said to be alienating students and stifling critical and creative thinking. In this curriculum, what was emphasised was the teaching of literacy where people learnt reading, writing and later simple arithmetic. As it has already been established, missionaries educated adults for liturgical purposes. Hence, the emphasis on literacy. Nafukho, et al, (2005) explain that the education system was changed to reflect the European social process. Colonial governments were interested in adult education in so far as they produced literate people who were used as collaborators and workers for their colonial enterprises.

According to Kabaso Sydney (2007:12) as reflected In “History of Education in Zambia” article as published by article base.com writes,” the Zambians were compared to put on smart clothes, they were put in charge of office work, in which they began to occupy professional, managerial, or administrative position. Such workers typically wear shirts with white collars. Those working in factories or doing manual labour typically had to wear blue collars, working suits and over rows and are therefore became to be called blue-collar workers

Conclusion

It has been established that history has a long lasting influence on what happens in the future. It has been shown colonial adult education positively impacted on post independent Zambia as white collar syndrome is concerned. The first republic worked out hard to fill in the workers in all vacancies that were left by the colonial government and a number of Zambians were employed on white collar jobs, thus the syndrome increased.

Importance of Physical Education for Adolescents

For all young adults / adolescents / youths, physical education or physical activity is a must and very important in their lives, as physical exercises help in the holistic development of the individual which help them to make the transition and become matured when they reach their adulthood. Today lifestyles and habits practiced by the youths play a significant role when they enter adult lives. In addition to this, the lifestyle choices which they cultivate now, will be adopted and practiced when they become adults. This is why outdoor activities and physical education helps to develop the character and makes the youth responsible and matured. It also makes the youth socially responsible, makes him or her to do something for the society and for other beings. Due to hectic lifestyles, most people don’t find time for exercise or spend quality time with their families.

According to many national health publications, the fitness and overall health of the American youths are declining, its high time youths should get involved into numerous activities like sports and social work which will make them a better person and a healthier being. There are numerous programs and institutes which actually gives you all sort of training, courses and projects; where you can learn many important things apart from physical education which will be constructive. You will be given with all essential information; such has eating health balanced food, how to develop your leadership skills, sex education, personality development and even how to score better grades! You can even try extra curricular activities like painting and crafts.

Try joining the local gym to develop your health and personality, indulge your self in indoor games which is fun and healthy. Try swimming which is amusing and a great exercise. You can even try cycling, jogging, running, mountain climbing, canoeing, dance, aerobics, karate, take-won-do and gymnastics. Yoga is also a popular exercise for your body, mind and soul. There are many outdoor activities which you can try. Join a tennis or squash club. If you love spending time at the beach or if you enjoy the sea water and basking in the sun; then try playing beach volleyball, surfing or Frisbee with you dog. It is really enjoyable when you play with you friends or family. It is a great way to keep yourself fit and bond with the people whom you love.

Earn A Free High School Diploma

A high school diploma plays a crucial role when it comes to applying for a job. However, there are many people who cannot attend high school for financial or other personal reasons. Thankfully, there are now various types of diplomas available for all those ambitious people who want to acquire more education and move up the career ladder. The best news is that you don’t have to shell out money on acquiring a high school diploma. Yes, you can acquire a high school diploma free of charge. However it does not come about without putting in sincere efforts. In order to earn a free high school diploma you need to possess some special skills and fulfill certain criteria.

There are many people who have excellent skills to get a decent job but it is denied to them for not holding a high school diploma. It seems to be unfair, but that is where you realize the importance of a formal education. If you have been working in a skillful job and your career growth has stopped for not possessing a high school diploma you don’t need to worry any more. You can get it now by proving your skills. On this type of free diploma program you will have to demonstrate your specific skills that you are supposed to have acquired on your job. You also need to meet the appointed consultant every week and complete the given assignments related to your particular professional field.

This special diploma program can be completed within a period of four months to 2 years. You are awarded a high school diploma after you successfully exhibit all your talents and complete the assigned tasks related to your work. The course duration depends upon the amount of time you take to develop the necessary talents and skills. As soon as you complete the entire task showing good performance you are eligible to get a high school diploma without paying any charges. However, this program is restricted to the residents of certain specified regions. Therefore to acquire this type of high school diploma you need to check out with the state education department office in your area.
Another type of program through which you can obtain a free high school diploma is for those who have experience in a volunteering field or hold experience in occupational or military service. You can either opt to attend classes conducted in the evenings or study on your own. You are given credit points for completing each assignment and session. After performing well in all your exams and demonstrating expected skills in the given tasks you become eligible to be awarded a high school diploma.

Alternatively, you can opt for GED tests and acquire a high school diploma. The GED testing system compares your performance on such tests to the results of Grade 12 students on the same tests. These tests take into account the skills and knowledge people are expected to retain from high school, especially the ability to reason, gather and process relevant information, and draw logical conclusions. On demonstrating such skills the General Education Department (GED) awards you a certificate, which is equivalent to a high school diploma. Again, this certificate can be obtained for free. In a number of states the State Board of Education (SBE) finances this program. This free high school diploma program helps students to clear the five-part exam without difficulty. This program is so popular that at times there are students who attend this program to sharpen their skills despite already holding a high school diploma.

However, when applying to a school or university for a free high school diploma you have to be very careful. There are many fraudulent online schools that cheat students. To be on a safer side try to find out a reputed and well-known school that offers a free high school diploma. With a high school diploma becoming so easy to obtain there is no reason why you too shouldn’t have one and qualify for a better job or a promotion in your current job.

Special Education Tutoring: Speciality Of New York City

Education, a way of gaining knowledge and experience is as much essential like breathing oxygen and it happens on auto-pilot mode. Now, not all have the same mental capacities or ability to grasp and understand information that is being imparted or learnt, especially for growing children. In New York, a city that overflows with people all the time both residence and commuters and has the most advanced technology almost in every walk of life, has various institution that specializes in aiding those children who have difficulty in keeping pace withthe academic performance of other children or children with some disability, runs certain tutoring centre just for this purpose all-round the year depending on the students’ need. That is, to enable in developing and improving the ability of children who lag in particular subject or who masters in one.

According to the needs of each individual tutoring is organized with focus, usually given on teaching students in grade preK-12 on fundamental skills such as reading, writing, math and other necessaries that needed for success in school. Special Education Tutoring, New York City offers specialized programs, summer coaching or other event-programs for students with ADHD and learning disabilities.As children cannot get the hang of a particular subjects, for example, understanding a foreign language or making any sense out of a periodic table or even a simple English grammar, hence the first step involves in assisting those children, is the identification ofareas of default. Once identified, coaching can be given accordingly.

The assessment of every student is made by thoroughly examining their activities or performance to determine the strength and weakness and to know whether further attention or additional programs are to be given to a student. Right after the assessment, a plan is devised for each student and accordingly the education practice is carried on, using techniques such multi-sensory techniques or scientific based strategies. The progress made in special education tutoring New York City is compared with the academic performance at the school; special strategies are applied in relevant areas if performance seemed to be lagging for the student. In certain cases, the school of the student and the tutoring centre joint together as a team with the consent of the parents for the welfare of the student career.The tutoring centre provides classes for a week or for a month depending on the area a student needs attention and at the same time depends on the subject that needs to be focused. Some of the methods in which teaching is performed are, providing homework, building up confidence through continuous encouragement, providing team tutoring, that is, some students can learn fast if taught by their age group and scope for group activities to turn weakness into strength.

Thus the overall benefit for Special Education tutoring is that, the technology is rapidly changing which is mainly beneficial in the field of education as the latest development has improved the means to enable learning abilities in children of all kinds of age and disabilities. Online tutoring is vital in the betterment of child education.

Vocational training placement provider in India

Could you imagine yourself involved in a vibrant new field that is certainly pushing the boundaries of the environment? If you get properly trained & competent in green engineering you can actually do just that! Regardless of whether you intend to work in Great Britain or in another country, you could very well be fitting machinery that reduces Carbon Dioxide emissions & reduces electricity costs within a few months of getting started on your training course. Approximately 80 percent of the price of set up work can often be paid from the Govt. whenever home-owners have environmentally friendly devices fitted by authorized trades’ people. Nonetheless that is just the start. By twenty sixteen, the law states that new-build houses will need to create as a minimum 15 per-cent of their domestic energy from renewable supplies. The future for skilled Green technicians is actually really glowing – because there isn’t another means for society to progress. Economies all over the world are transforming into knowledge based economies. With the fundamentals of the world changing fast with the modifications in technology, it is important for a person to have specialization in a particular field in order to find a lucrative job. Such type of specialization is imparted by vocational education training institutes. In the fields of health, technology, art and business administration, vocational education is generally imparted. The classification of these themes is further done into other specific courses. There are so many India Govt. authorized training providers. Among them IIIM Ltd. is best. It is also a vocational training placement provider in India. It is located at AE 369, Salt Lake, Sector-1, and Kolkata- 700064.

The India Govt. authorized training providers are governed by the respective state laws. Recognition to these institutes is conferred upon by the department of the state or the central government of the country.  All the mandatory norms for joining these institutes have to be fulfilled upon by the particular person interested in joining the institute. Getting admission into IIIM Ltd. is not very difficult. All the necessary details about the institute as well as the placement scenario are completely available on the website (www.iiimltd.in) of the institute. The better the placements of the vocational institute, the better the brand name is. The course material of the institute is updated regularly due to the fast transformations in the elements of the economy as well as know-how. So, come and take admission in IIIM Ltd. (www.iiimltd.in), the best vocational training placement provider in India.

Is education important to be successful in life?

IS EDUCATION IMPORTANT TO BE SUCCESSFUL IN LIFE?

Introduction

The importance of education as a main contributing factor to lead a highly successful is a very good topic for debate and group discussions. Many people have different opinions on this depending upon their definition for the word education. The word education to me means gaining knowledge in any stream, by training, reading books, attending classes, or joining a regular school. There are several stages in education like the initial primary stage, secondary stage, and university education. The initial primary and secondary education are mandatory for all so that they get to know the basics that is to read, write and comprehend and also get a basic knowledge in subjects for all round development. The topic for debate is to analyse how far university education and higher studies are responsible for shaping careers or meeting with success in life.

Higher education is necessary if one chooses to have successful careers in technical areas like medicine, finance, engineering, life science etc. However if interested  in establishing a business, running a shop, attaining the top spot in sports,  becoming an actor, or a writer it is not always necessary to attend university. In such cases one must have the drive for success. We must recognize what their objectives are, and just go out to achieve our goals by channelizing our energies towards attaining that goal.

The ingredients needed for success

Focus, time management and concentration are the important ingredients we would need to inch closer towards achieving our goals. We must think of the ways to acquire success in the particular field we have chosen. For instance if I wish to be a successful actor, I must make it a point to first watch a lot of movies, observe the legendary actors, learn the art of communication, and get over stage fear. I would need a lot of practice in acting and also make sure I speak fluently and also take some help if my diction is not good. Thus by focussing on my weak points and with practise, I would soon be on my way to becoming a good actor. Here, higher education will not be required as that is not my aim. So by channelizing my energies in this direction and using my time to develop these soft skills would be the steps in the right direction for me.

The Hall of fame- college drop outs

If we think of many successful people we will realize that they have not had formal education. A good example is Steve Jobs who founded the most powerful computer company Apple Inc. Steve jobs was a college drop-out. He gained primary education and later even secured admission in Reed University only to drop out just after a few months to pursue a course in calligraphy which deeply motivated him. His drive and hunger to achieve success in making the first computer made him set up Apple, so much so that his company went on to become the number one company in devising world class computers and other gadgets. He became a successful entrepreneur only because of his strong resolve, grit, determination and his focus. He always felt that time was limited and he must not waste it. His positive attitude, his drive, focus and determination were the main reasons behind his success.

There are many other examples of celebrities who have been college drop outs and still managed to climb the ladder.

  • Bryan Adams the famous singer and songwriter is other example of an achiever.
  • Gautam Adani the famous business tycoon of the Adani group is a billionaire today.
  • Andre Agassi who won 8 grand slam titles as a tennis player is a ninth grade pass out.
  • The success story of the famous jeweller Joy Allukkas is also well known. He opened a jewel store in the gulf but now owns several stores all over Asia. He never had formal education. Experience and wisdom were his strong points.
  • Dhirubahi Amabni another very famous business tycoon, the founder of the reliance group is another example of those who made it big despite not having gone to university for higher studies.
  • Jane Austen the author of the famous novel ‘pride and prejudice’ also never attended college. It was her father who coached her at home.

Conclusion

The list of such successful people is never ending, but it does not go out to prove that we must be college drop outs to be successful. It only shows that the formula for success lies in one’s attitude and how far one can go towards it without getting frustrated, losing focus and getting impatient when things do not work. Everyone has strengths and weaknesses and we must move ahead realizing our strengths and developing our talents which is hidden with us. We must realize our potential, our hidden skills and must pursue them with a drive. It is not as if one cannot make mistakes. We must make them and be happy that the experience made us wiser and stronger with a new lesson in life. There is no short cut to hard work when one is in pursuit of success neither can we find a magic want. We must script our own lives by realizing our potential and working towards it.

 

Geocaching Makes Walking Fun for Physical Education Classes

Walking is one of the best exercises for lifetime fitness. But let’s face it – plain old walking can be a boring proposition for students. As a result, the canny physical education teacher will find ways to make a walk more exciting.

Thanks to modern technology, there is now a fun activity that combines satellite navigation, orienteering, computer skills, treasure hunting…and walking. It’s a super cross-curricular game that your students will love.

Called “geocaching,” (pronounced “geo cashing”) it makes use of GPS units to find prizes hidden by other geocachers.

WHAT IS A GPS?

GPS stands for “Global Positioning System” and these handheld electronic units make use of satellites to pinpoint your latitude and longitude to within three meters. A GPS will help you navigate from your current position to another location using their built-in maps and instructions.

GPS units cost anywhere from $100 and up. As an alternative, some Blackberry units can be GPS-enabled. You can download “Geocache Navigator” for free for 60 days. For more information, see the “Blackberry.Geocaching” website.

However, the big surge in GPS use will come when regular GPS-enabled cell phones hit the market. It is estimated that 500 million such cell phones will be in use, worldwide, by 2012.

GEOCACHING – HOW TO GET STARTED

To start a geocaching quest, log in to the “Geocaching” website. Enter the postal code of your area and you’ll see several local cache locations, each with a short verbal description, a level of difficulty and a location shown on the Google Map website.

To get your GPS co-ordinates, you must first register (it’s free). You can then receive the GPS longitude and latitude co-ordinates. An example might be N43o40.110’W083o23.378′
Your job as a geocacher is to enter the co-ordinates into your GPS unit, then follow the directions to the cache. This will involve a nice hike for your students.

Before embarking on your quest, you could give a cross-curricular lesson on latitude, longitude and satellites…not to mention the use of the world wide web.
ONCE YOU FIND YOUR LOCATION – WHAT TO DO?

Your GPS will get you within 6 to 20 feet from your target. You then have to search to find the cache, which usually will be a plastic container.

Most containers will contain a dollar-store item such as a plastic animal, pencil or measuring tapes. They will also contain a logbook that you can read, and then sign. Seeing who else has been to the cache is half the fun. Take the prize, then replace it with a prize of your own.

CLASS LOGISTICS

You can go geocaching with your entire class, or split into groups, as long as each group has a supervisor. Also, you could also establish a cache or two of your own, in a location you know to be safe and easily accessible.

The good thing about a GPS is that it’s hard to get lost when you have one in your hand. It will leave a trail of “bread crumbs” as you walk – little dots on the display screen that show you how to retrace your steps. However, it’s also good to bring a compass, just in case the GPS batteries die.

And the best thing about geocaching? It will get your students walking – and make it fun at the same time!

The Importance of Physical Education in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world. The country is not developed in Physical Education at all. There are a few government and private physical education colleges are providing Physical Education here. Furthermore, those colleges are given only Bachelor of Physical Education for limited number students. Most of the people are very poor and needy in the country, for this reason, they are not physically fit and healthy.  Only proper physical education can change the situation which offers peoples a chance to learn how to keep themselves healthy with life-long skills without expense money.

Bangladeshi peoples should maintain sound physical fitness to fostering real socio economic development. Our peoples need to be physically active to grow properly.  Regular physical activity increases our self-esteem, social development, weight control, stress management, plying skill development and academic performance ( Nieman, 2002).Physical education actively engages us to learn more skills and be more responsible for our body produce us to understand the importance of living healthy. Physical education is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity. Physical education helps our peoples to maintain fitness, develop muscle strength, and increase our strength.

As a resident of Bangladesh, we need to create awareness about important health and nutrition issues. Physical education provides an excellent opportunity for all peoples to promote the benefits of healthy and nutritious food and cite the ill effects of junk food. Promoting sound eating practices and guidelines for nutrition are some of the very valuable lessons that can be taught through physical education. Physical education lessons about the importance of personal hygiene and importance of cleanliness. Thus the physical education help the peoples to know the important hygiene practices that must be practiced in order to maintain the health and well being throughout the life. In addition to this, the physical education also covers an important aspect that the children have to deal with at the age of puberty. Physical education also impart sex-education and hence help the peoples deal with their queries and doubts about the subject of sexuality.

Quality health and physical education programs can be life-changing for today’s young people in Bangladesh. Physical education can offer to our peoples a well-rounded opportunity to develop their bodies and minds to gain skills that will propel them to success in both the physical and other aspects in life. Quality physical education programs are needed to increase the physical competence, health-related fitness, self-responsibility and enjoyment of physical activity for all peoples in Bangladesh so that they can be physically active for a lifetime (Kamal,2010).

Physical education can influence moral development by improving right judgment mentality in our peoples. They have the opportunity to assume leadership, cooperate with others, question actions and regulations, and accept responsibility for their own behavior. Physical education instills a stronger sense of self-worth in children based on their mastery of skills and concepts in physical activity. They can become more confident, assertive, independent and self-controlled.

The value of Physical Education to keep Healthy

Physical education is the parts of awareness that will eventually compel our achievement. It creates a consciousness to become physical fit in our life. It refers to this condition where a person has developed great strength, speed, strength, etc. Physical fitness is essential to lead a happy, energetic and abundance life. The mind, body and strength, are all related and studying how they work together and how to concern for them can keep us from avoidable suffering. It is the all growth of the behavior of a person or wholesome progress of human individuality and it leads physical, mental, social, emotional and moral aspects to make a person a good civilian who makes role in development of the nation. In shortly, physical education indicates making a person physically fit, mentally alert, emotionally balanced, socially adjusted, morally and spiritually right up.

Physical education is essential during childhood for good growth and development. Children who are enrolled in physical education typically receive education on health, including nutrition. Children then start to know that when they eat healthy they have better quantity of energy to expend in games and sports. Children begin to learn that eating healthy is a lifestyle and can have a positive impact on the growth of skeletal and muscular system. They learn to be proud of their impact on growth through their food choices, and can lead to become adults with healthy habits. Today, children spend many hours in school and extracurricular activities that fill a large majority of their time. It is essential to have a good physical education that needs our children to be active.

Physical education provides to adulthood to keep their good health and fitness. To prevent and treat various diseases and disorders in our old age, physical education can be a vital part in our life. Physical education teaches various physical activities that can be practiced today such as motor skills in games and sports of volleyball, tennis, swimming, teaches us the value of ethical behavior in sport situations. The Physical education is also important for the average drop of energy, emotion, excitement or frustration, and some people leave their extra steam by participating in various sports and games which are part of the physical education.

Physical education is a good adaptation to group living. It offers many opportunities to develop characteristics such as cooperation, respect for others, loyalty, sportsmanship, self confidence etc. All these qualities help a person make him a good citizen. It develops an understanding and appreciation of the local and worldwide environment. By participating in various physical education activities such as dance, sports and games, quite a person understands the history, culture, tradition, religious practices, etc.

Physical education is an important inspiration to participate in many activities such as sports and social work will make a better person and be healthy. There are many programs and institutions that actually give us all kinds of training, courses and projects, where we can learn many important things about physical education. We should take adequate step to learn proper physical education in our life.

Higher Education in the United States: An Overview

Higher education in the United States stands for every type of formal education after the
secondary level. Though the expression “college” is frequently applied to denote any institute offering higher education, a college is basically a 4 year undergraduate school that confers bachelor’s degrees. A college might or might not be a branch of a university that is made up of undergraduate college, as well as one or more graduate schools. Graduate schools are parts of universities that confer a broad range of degrees at the postgraduate and doctoral levels.

The United States Department of Education supervises the entire higher educational
system of the country. It was established in 1980.

There is no countrywide university system in the United States. Nevertheless, there are numerous public and private institutions with distinct academic rules and regulations,
departmental composition, calendars as well as course programs. National and regional
organizations set up benchmarks for higher education and recognize schools which
fulfill those benchmarks.

In the United States, higher education is provided by various business schools, law
schools, engineering schools, criminal justice schools, educational schools and medical
schools.

Getting an opportunity to study in the U.S. is really attractive for the following reasons:

1) Choice of subjects
2) Quality of education
3) Value for money
4) Flexibility in selection of course programs

Graduate Degree Programs:

In the U.S., graduate degree programs typically adopt a broad-based pattern. Postgraduate programs focus on a specific field of study. Doctoral programs usually span two years. Every postgraduate and doctoral program is all-inclusive in nature and needs a lot of preparation for a substantial time period. The eligibility criteria are also made quite stringent in order to check the student’s understanding of the subject. Master’s degree programs can be categorized into thesis and non-thesis programs whereas a dissertation is mandatory for doctoral programs.
Coordinating Departments of the Government:

Following are names of some of the important government coordination departments dealing with higher education in the United States:

  • Alabama Commission on Higher Education
  • Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board
  • Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board
  • California postsecondary education commission
  • The Georgia Department of Technical and Adult Education

Names of Prominent Universities in the United States:

Following are names of some of the well-known universities in the United States:

  • Stanford University
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
  • Harvard University
  • Columbia University
  • Yale University
  • University of Washington
  • University of Southern California
  • Cornell University
  • Carnegie Mellon University
  • Texas A&M University
  • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • California Institute of Technology
  • Purdue University
  • Duke University
  • New York University
  • University of Florida

Inclusive education: an overview

INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: AN OVERVIEW

BY

Dr.K.K.PALANI

POST – DOCTOR FELLOW – UGC

MADRAS UNIVERSITY

TAMILNADU

Introduction: Historical Background

Reynolds (1988) uses the term “progressive inclusion” to describe the evolution of services to those with various disabilities. He and others (Winzer, 1993; Stainback, Stainback, & Bunch, 1989b) point out that as the United States emerged as a nation, no educational services were available to people with disabilities. In the early 1800s, residential institutions, or asylums, began to emerge in order to accommodate those with hearing, visual, mental, or emotional impairments. Although access to those facilities was far from universal, such institutions remained the primary educational option for the disabled until special day schools came into fashion in the early 1900s. These allowed greater, more localized access and somewhat better services to individuals with disabilities.

During the 1950s and 1960s, parents of children with disabilities organized to pressure courts and legislatures for changes in educational services available to their children. They began to seek access to public schools as an issue of civil rights for those with disabilities. Among the results of these efforts was The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (PL 94-142), which mandated that all children, regardless of disability, had the right to a free, appropriate education in the least restrictive environment. As a result, resource rooms and self-contained classrooms for those with disabilities expanded in public schools. PL 94-142 was updated in 1991 by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

In 1986, Madeleine Will, then-Assistant Secretary for the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (under the U.S. Department of Education), in an annual report regarding the status of special education programs, proposed what has been called the Regular Education Initiative. Citing concerns about some unintended negative effects of special education “pull-out” programs, her proposal suggested that greater efforts to educate mildly and moderately disabled students in the mainstream of regular education should be pursued (Will, 1986). Since then, support has grown for all students, including those with severe and profound disabilities, to be included and educated in classrooms with non-disabled peers, preferably in schools that they would attend if not disabled.

Determining the current status of educational placements of students with disabilities is difficult. Information varies depending upon the sources pursued. However, from the U.S. Department of Education’s 16th Annual Report on Implementation of the IDEA (data from the 1991-1992 school year), it appears that about 35 percent of students with disabilities are attending school in regular classes. Of the remaining 65 percent, 36.3 percent receive special educational services in a resource room setting and 23.5 percent are in self-contained classes specifically tailored for students with disabilities. A little over 5 percent of students identified as needing special educational services receive them in settings outside the regular school setting (separate school, residential facility, homebound, or hospital).

Indian Scenario

Education of children with disabilities in India, as all over the world, has moved from segregation, special schools to integrated education. There is a national level central government sponsored scheme called Integrated Education of Disabled Children (IEDC). This project was started in 1980s and designed based on the experience gathered from a UNICEF assisted pilot project called PIED (project on integrated education of disabled children).

In the mid-1980s many NGOs implemented this IEDC with grants from government. of India. This project is implemented by the Ministry of Human Resource Development.

This is basically an itinerant resource teaching approach and one resource teacher was given to every 8 children with special needs. There are around 60,000 children with disabilities getting access to education under this scheme. By and large the project is managed by the NGO sector.

Although the goals and objectives of the IEDC program were laudable, the number of children with disabilities enrolled was woefully small. For example in Karnataka state about 2% of all children with disabilities acquires education. About 1% of these children are enrolled in special schools and the balances 1% are in the integrated education system.

‘Mohan 6 years who lives in Chennai in India went with his parents for admission into a school. The general school refused to give him because he could not see fully. He went to a special school for admission. They also refused admission because he could see partly!!’ (A principal sharing in the national seminar on Inclusive education)

‘When good inclusion is in place, the child who needs the inclusion does not stand out. The inclusive curriculum includes strong parental involvement, students making choices, and a lot of hands-on and heads-on involvement.’ (Dr. Melissa Heston, Associate Professor of Education, University of Northern Iowa)

‘After my son is out of public school, he’ll be living and working with a diverse population of people. I want him to be accepted after he’s out of school as much as when he’s in school. For me, that’s why inclusion is a key while he’s in school.’ (Parent of child with disability)

India is a signatory to or participated in the United Nations Rights of the Child, United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalisation of Opportunities, the Jomtien Declaration on Education for All and the Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action.

“… Schools should accommodate all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, emotional, social, linguistic or other conditions.” (Article 3, Salamanca Framework for Action)

“Regular schools with this inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all; moreover, they provide an effective education to the majority of children and improve the efficiency and ultimately the cost-effectiveness of the entire education system.” (Article 2, Salamanca Statement)

This framework stems from the messages of the Jomtien World Declaration on Education for All (1990) and was reaffirmed in the Dakar Framework for Action (2000):

‘… In order to attract and retain children from marginalized and excluded groups, education systems should respond flexibly… Education systems must be inclusive, actively seeking out children who are not enrolled, and responding flexibly to the circumstances and needs of all learners…’ (Education for All: Meeting our Collective Commitments. Expanded Commentary on the Dakar Framework for Action, Para 33)

Rule 6 of the UN Standard Rules for Persons with Disabilities states:

‘States should recognize the principle of equal primary, secondary and tertiary educational opportunities for children, youth and adults with disabilities in integrated settings. They should ensure that the education of persons with disabilities is an integral part of the educational system. General education authorities are responsible for the education of persons with disabilities in integrated settings. Education for persons with disabilities should form an integral part of national educational planning, curriculum development and school organization.’

The Indian ‘Equal Opportunities and Rights of Persons with Disabilities ACT’ 1995, rule 26, speak about the’ education of children with disabilities up to the age of 18 years in an appropriate environment’

Why we need to move from IEDC?

  1. IEDC was heavily dependent on resource teachers in the projects implemented by NGOs.
  2. IEDC implemented by Government teachers had a questionable quality because the teachers were trained only for 42 days.
  3. In the NGO implemented IED model the quality and support to children in rural areas was inadequate because the resource teachers had to travel from one village to the other, often covering long distances on foot. The time actually available for resource teaching was inadequate.
  4. The resource teaching approach in NGO models was also questionable because children were either pulled out from regular classes for resource teaching or they were asked to come before school and stay back after school. This was not a child friendly approach, more so for children in the 4th standard and above, who travelled a long distance, often from neighboring villages, to reach the school.

Inclusive Education

As a system, inclusive education should be flexible. Its principle should be education in the regular classroom whenever possible. This need for flexibility must be reflected in the methods and materials used to give these children the widest possible access to the regular curriculum. When discussing the kind of service needed, the starting point should always be what is best for the particular child. Emphasising inclusive education does not rule out special schools or centres. They would still be required to cater to children with profound and complex difficulties in need of more specialised and extensive help, including e.g. many deaf children. This alternative should, however, not be considered, unless classroom placement cannot meet their needs.

In line with the new policy of inclusive education, special schools begin to function more and more as resource centres. They involve in outreach programmes, where they draw on their vast experience and knowledge. They link their activities with those of the regular schools, the families, and the communities.

Inclusive education services allow children with disabilities to stay with their family and to go to the nearest school, just like all other children. This circumstance is of vital importance to their personal development. Interrupting a disabled child’s normal development may have far more severe consequences than the disability itself.

In this context, it is important to stress the role parents have. They have a right to be involved in all decision-making concerning their child. They should be seen as partners in the education process. Where there is such co-operation, parents have been found to be very important resources for the teachers and the schools.

As a rule, there are a number of practical problems that have to be solved before a child with special educational needs can go to school or take part in school activities. The arrangements it takes are fairly simple, provided co-ordinated local and unconventional initiatives are stimulated. One should also remember that the child’s schoolmates represent a valuable potential partner who is ready and able to help in overcoming some of these problems.

Inclusion a holistic vision

Any child may experience a special need during the course of educational years (UNESCO). Some children feel ‘left-outs’ and never enter school or enter only for a few years and, as repeaters, become ‘drop-outs’ or, more correctly ‘pushed-outs’, without their needs having been met. These children are a vivid illustration of the failure of schools to teach rather than the pupils’ failure to learn. A school system emphasising Education for All should ensure the right of all children to a meaningful education based on individual needs and abilities. (Ture Johnson 2002)

The regular schools will now increasingly play a major role in making provision for children with special educational needs available nation-wide. Making the school system flexible and adopting an inclusive approach may, however, prove the most challenging task of all, a task calling for deep reflection and discussion of the two fundamental questions: “What is the overall role of education”, and “What is it we want children to learn in school?” It might lead to the need of reforming the school system as a whole from a traditional, examination-oriented to an inclusive, child-oriented approach.

Policy and Reality

To open up the regular school system to disabled children is not an easy task. The policy on inclusion and mainstreaming can easily become “main dumping” if not implemented carefully. It was, however, pointed out that a big gap exists between this ideal situation and the present reality. There is an urgent need for interventions for equipping general teachers with special skills, making general curricula, teaching methods. Evaluation procedures, learning material disability-sensitive and addressing the attitudes /needs of other children in the school to ensure such interventions benefits all children.

It is important to have a holistic, comprehensive and inter-sect oral approach where all pieces are put together. It is not enough to present and implement one part only. An inclusion policy cannot stand-alone and “cannot be a substitute for careful planning of interventions and systematic capacity-building for the implementers of these interventions”. (5)

The curriculum for “ALL” needs to be:

  1. Child centred: Children with disabilities need child-centred curriculum, which takes into account the individual needs of children. The curriculum needs to set specific, observable, measurable and achievable learning outcomes (SOMA).
  2. Flexible: A flexible, locally relevant curriculum, teaching and learning strategies are intrinsically important for children with special needs to participate in the educational process.
  3. Participatory: Children with special needs require a learning environment in which they can actively participate in learning in small groups learning settings
  4. Partnership with parents: Partnership with parents is a key factor as children learn not only in the classrooms but also at home.

Conclusion

Inclusive education included as

  • Valuing all students and staff equally.
  • Increasing the participation of students in, and reducing their exclusion from, the cultures, curricula and communities of local schools.
  • Restructuring the cultures, policies and practices in schools so that they respond to the diversity of students in the locality.
  • Reducing barriers to learning and participation for all students, not only those with impairments or those who are categorised as `having special educational needs’.
  • Learning from attempts to overcome barriers to the access and participation of particular students to make changes for the benefit of students more widely.
  • Viewing the difference between students as resources to support learning, rather than as problems to be overcome.
  • Acknowledging the right of students to an education in their locality.
  • Improving schools for staff as well as for students.
  • Emphasising the role of schools in building community and developing values, as well as in increasing achievement.
  • Fostering mutually sustaining relationships between schools and communities.
  • Recognising that inclusion in education is one aspect of inclusion in society.

Inclusive education must respond to all pupils as individuals, recognizing individuality as something to be appreciated and respected. Inclusive education responding to special needs will thus have positive returns for all pupils.†All children and young people of the world, with their individual strengths and weaknesses, with their hopes and expectations, have the right to education. It is not our education systems that have a right to a certain type of children. Therefore, it is the school system of a country that must be adjusted to meet the needs of all its children.” (6).

That is a big and difficult task, but “where there is a will there is a way!”

Understanding Your Child’s Special Education Need

Bulbul, Mrs. Kaushal’s daughter will be two next month. She is a chubby little girl with big round expressive eyes which when imbibed with childhood innocence grants her a charming personality. Everyone keeps complimenting her mother on what a pretty little girl she is. And what draws even more praise from friends and neighbours is that while other children of her age are super naughty, throw tantrums, and make hell for their parents, Bulbul is exceptionally quiet and well behaved.

Last month, when trying to get her into a play school, Mrs Kaushik found out that bulbul is affected with mild autism…

This story is not just Mrs. Kaushal’s alone. Many parents find themselves in her shoes. In fact, given to the weird genetic coding that attributes to physical and mental disabilities, it could be any of us. And although some parents may find it difficult to come to terms with their child’s special needs, there are many others who understand, accept and embrace the situation while trying to help their child cope with it. It is really unto us to mitigate the challenge and give way to positivity. Talk to schools for mentally challenged and you would know it’s easier for parents who stop fighting the circumstances and come to terms with it.

And a good way to start with that is trying to understand his special education needs.

He would need special school for disabled children if,

  • He has been diagnosed with a disability and the doctor has prescribed SED.
  • He finds greater difficulty in learning than the peers of his age
  • He requires additional resources and help to learn than is already provided at schools.

Accepting the fact that your child will go to a special school for disabled children can be too formidable for some parents, but understand that such a conducive environment will help him immensely. An inclusive classroom may not provide him with equal opportunities and he may find it difficult to cope up.

On the contrary, a school for mentally challenged can nurse him when need be, lift his confidence and provide a tailor-made syllabus that works and grows with his own pace.

You can reflect on his abilities in comparison to other children and map the growth lag if any. Though you would have to be watchful of more subtle symptoms like dyslexia, mild autism etc. which often pass as stubbornness on the part of the child.

Moreover, you need to understand that each child is different. You cannot gauge the extent and nature of help he would need based on some other child’s development graph. Their progress, goals and parameters will all be different as well.

Special Education Centers Offer Excellent Programs For Students With Disabilities

When a child underperforms in school the first persons to get affected by it is parents. They are often baffled as to the cause of the problem and feel that it is the child’s inattentiveness that is causing it. However the problem can be deeper. The child may have genuine issues such as a learning disability which prevents them from using their abilities to understand what is being taught. Such disabilities vary from mild to severe. Usually teachers catch up on the child’s problem and inform parents about it so that they can send them to special classes that correct it.  There are many special education New York state centers where your child can get exactly the kind of assistance needed for their learning problem.

Special education centers have study programs that are tailored to address specific problems that a child is facing in learning. The problem may be something like hearing words inccorrectly, difficulty in reading comprehensive, dyslexia, and much more. They examine a child’s skills to find out what they are good at and what is missing so that they can address it and help them to develop their mental faculties. They will use proven methods to address such issues so that they are resolved. Hence the results are excellent enabling the child to learn better and get good grades in their exams.

One such proven approach that they use is the Orton-Gillingham method. This is a multisensory method used to resolve dyslexia. Children affected by this problem find it difficult to read, spell and write. With Orton-Gillingham tutoring their reading comprehension enhances. They are able to do paraphrasing, draw conclusions, retell stories and much more. They can understand what a topic says and the vital details of passages under it. They can also teach children with ADD and ADHD so that they can understand their subjects and learn what is needed to pass exams. This includes understanding letter and word formation, reading passages of text and understanding them and imbibing methods that help stay focused on what is being taught. Children with ADD/ADHD are hyperactive, distracted, day dreaming hence they need special attention in learning and mixing with society. Special education New York state learning centers offer programs that are perfect for children with this problem.

Children with special learning needs require attention to helps them cope with what they need to know. Without such assistance they will find it difficult to live in their community. They need to be able to communicate and do things independently just like everyone else. Special education centers offer them the means to get skills and overcome their learning challenges through teaching methods that are specially devised for their problems. They can attend customized learning sessions that help address individuals learning problems. This enables them to imbibe what they need to learn faster and they show good results in school. If your child is having a learning disability do not delay helping them any further and enroll them into a special education center. The earlier you get your child enrolled into a program the better off they are in helping themselves in studies and other activities.

The future lies in vocational training!

Since generations, we have been told that it’s only through formal studies that we’d be able to make it big in life. But, if we look back at the last couple of decades, we’d find that the formal education system in India hasn’t been able to prepare the youth for the job market.

There is so much more beyond formal education!

The biggest challenge that formal education sector is facing today is that of its lack of emphasis on developing job oriented skills in the students. So when a student passes out of his/her school or college, he/she is just not job-ready. Over the years, this gap has only widened and today, many of the industries are struggling as they are not getting enough supply of skilled manpower.

However, the good thing is we-as-a-country have woken up to the need for skilled workforce, and the huge role it would play in the coming years in the formation of a new India.

India’s Prime Minister Shri Narender Modi has himself noted that soon India (as well as the rest of the world) would need a tremendous and continuous supply of skilled workforce which can take up different job roles across industries that will drive the economic growth of our nation.

So, what’s being done in India for the growth of vocational/skill training?

Government of India has launched a series of initiatives to boost awareness about vocational training and education across the country. More importantly, it has built entities like NSDC. NSDC stands for National Skill Development Corporation, set-up as a public private partnership that aims to skill, up-skill and re-skill Indian youth in different trades including retail, automobile, construction, insurance etc.

Since its formation by the Ministry of Finance, Govt. of India, in 2009 under section 25 of the Companies Act, it has actively roped in numerous skill building companies to reach out to youth in urban as well as rural areas and train them for employment across industries. Till date, programs run by NSDC partners have benefitted more than 5 million people in 400 plus districts across India.
When ‘Make in India’ would happen

India’s Prime Minster is actively reaching out to global business communities and urging them to come to India and build their products here. His initiatives have been termed as ‘Make in India’ campaign.

Now imagine, if these companies actually turn up here. We’re already short of skilled manpower in retail, automobile, insurance, jewellery, textiles, and many other sectors; and if these companies also begin to manufacture from India, the demand would be difficult to match up.

What can we do to make India of our dreams?

We have to understand that if we are to build an India of our dreams, we have to change our very perception towards skill training and those who take up careers in vocational trades. We need to tell our kids and/or friends that there is so much more beyond formal education and white collar jobs, and that they can also build greet careers through vocational training. Also industry needs to step-up and recognize skilled workforce through a wage differential. Industry also needs to encourage its existing and future workforce to undergo skill training and constantly upgrade their skills through up-skilling or re-skilling.

Vocational training in India

The main aim or purpose of any vocational training in Bengal is more or less type of a school provides such as trade, career or technical training, and communication skills training in India. All vocational schools teach their students specific job skills in their chosen field of study. Basically a vocational institute was specifically meant to offer career oriented training that require practical expertise. These vocational schools teach you the tricks of the trade. Their programs focus on offering the candidates to go out in to the job market and also prove their abilities from the day one. A good vocational school is accredited and provides student services such as job placement after training completion. Unlike normal schools, vocational training in Bengal is meant for people of almost all ages. IIIM Ltd. is such a good vocational school which provides vocational training in Bengal and even communication skills training in India. It is located at AE 369, Salt Lake, Sector-1, and Kolkata-700064. Please checkwww.iiimltd.in for further details or you can also contact at 8335079334.

There are numerous high schools and graduate students who are ready to learn new things and become chefs, computer science experts, mechanics, graphic artists, nurses, technical engineers and many more. Today’s generation of candidates enter the labor force for getting a vocational training in Bengal with a degree on hand but mostly lack of the technical skills as well as the communication skills that are needed to stay one step ahead of other people without having any kind of on the job training. The students those who are extremely educated in their own field of expertise may have obtained immense good quality of education from courses and books but many of them have not even received a chance to work for the job which they had learned in a work environment. Such highly educated employees are often of no use to the companies out of the gate since they may be highly talented with long term promises but aren’t able to provide all that is wanted by the companies.

Education System in Tamilnadu

Literacy rate of Tamilnadu is 80.33% that is one of the most literate states in India. The state governments authorities have introduced the scheme of Sarva Siksha Abhiyan in Tamil Nadu (TN), subsequent which a girl child till the age of five and all children belonging to poverty stricken families are entitled to receive free primary education in government schools across TN cities.

Tamil Nadu education system is covert into the different stages such as:

  1. Pre Primary
  2. Primary
  3. Upper Primary
  4. Secondary
  5. Higher Secondary
  6. College Education
  7. University Education
  8. Research Studies

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School education in Tamil Nadu is an elaborate system or procedure. Children have to go through several stages of schooling to reach college. In addition, education begins at the age of four with the pre primary stage of schooling where students are mostly asked to attend playschool and learn lessons through games. At that time comes the primary stage of school where children are taught elementary lessons in various subjects. There are two board examinations that a candidate has to sit for to pass the school level of studies in TN. One is after the completion of class 10th and the next at the end of class 12th. The TN board conducts the 10th and 12th examination in March and declares the result on May or June every year. This year TN board 10th and 12th examination was successfully end on March 2015 and it will be declared the TN board result 2015/ Tamilnadu Result 2015 in May month of 2015.

A lot of students have given the 12th class examination by TN board and now they are waiting for their result. Some students have more hope to their result, because they are hard working and do more hard work to get good marks. They want to get good future in study. They think that – if they get good makes in their HSC Results, and then they can do desire course on better university of Tamilnadu. We want to inform students that – the TN board will be announced the Tamilnadu HSC Results 2015 on last week of May. It declares the 12th class result stream wise every year.  Therefore, students keep patience, we wish all students will get marks according to their expatiation.

There are a number of colleges in this South Indian state which boast of not only the best curriculum and facilities but also the best teachers. Even as Chennai is the hub of education in Tamil Nadu, so other cities and towns are also home to famous colleges. There is a list of the most popular colleges and universities in Tamil Nadu to study in after school.

Primary School Education And A Different Idea For Teaching

With the greatest intentions each successive government has devalued the true values of primary school education.

The goal of making society more equal has resulted in the teaching of predetermined amounts of knowledge with rigid syllabuses and assessment by examinations which are made publicly competitive through league tables.

A desire to make the economy much more productive has weakened the intellectual content of curricula and put into question the place and importance of some aspects of learning, those that can readily be measured, at the expense of others.

Learning for learnings sake across the vast scope of likely disciplines has been weakened. As a result, creativity, curiosity, enterprise and problem solving has been replaced by ‘teaching to the test’.

The future for both children and teachers alike is not about restoring the methods and practices of the Victorian era. It is to use the new expertise gained through an insight and understanding as to how different children learn in different ways, use the accumulated knowledge of new technologies and recognise and value the recent changes and developments of pedagogy.

This will require a new group of professional leaders, teachers, who not only are free to do their own thinking but share a philosophy and expertise that springs from deep convictions and shared successes. These teachers will be plucked from the currect batch of teachers and then developed and retrained. They will also come from new hires to teaching from all levels of society as well as Universities.

Change in the educational system will be welcomed by everyone who has a passion for teaching and educating other people and improving self confidence, knowledge, understanding and skills.

In order for this to happen it will be absolutely necessary for educational institutions at all levels to become autonomous over what is taught and how. In most cases primary schools must develop a new definition for themselves and their position in their immediate community. The staff who work with learners must have the authority to introduce new methods of learning which build on their best past experiences and reach out to develop different methods of engaging with learning that have yet to be discovered.

This kind of primary teaching and learning will be innovative and rigorous in its design and implementation and under constant review as new opportunities occur. If this path is followed, it will result in a cultural movement in the UK society to the point where education and achievement in the primary school are once again greatly valued.

Six Physical Education Games and Activities Your Elementary Students Will Love

The physical education games that are described in this article can be played at the beginning of gym class as part of a warm exercise, during the period wholly or partially devoted to games or physical education activities or at the end of class as part of cool down exercises.

In addition to the obvious benefits of providing good exercise, combating obesity and developing motor skills, the other skills that I wanted my students to demonstrate when they play these games are co-operation, sportsmanship and enjoyment.

Here are 6 examples of physical education games that my students and I enjoyed.

1. The Sheep And The Wolf

Formation: Two lines are drawn 20 to 30 feet apart. One student is the wolf and the rest are sheep. The sheep stand behind one line and the wolf stands in the center.

Aim: When the wolf claps his hands, the sheep try to run from one line to another without being tagged on the back. If they are caught, they become wolves. Only the original wolf can clap his hands to bring the sheep out.

2. Squirrels In The Trees

Have the class form a large circle and count off in three’s. Have two students, one being a fox and the other a squirreloutside the circle.

Have the one’s and three’s join hands forming an arch (or tree) with the number two’s in the middle as squirrels.

To start the activity, the fox chases the squirrel outside the tree. The squirrel runs into a tree to get away.

The squirrel in that tree must now run out of the tree and is chased by the fox. If the squirrel is caught, he becomes the fox.

Have all the squirrels squat down when they run into a tree so that all squirrels have a chance.

Have the other students that are trees change places with the squirrels so that everyone has a turn running.

3. Bounce Change

Have students form two lines (the red team and the blue team) behind two leaders about 15 feet apart. Each student in each line gets a number from 1 to the end.

Place a hula hoop at opposite ends of each team’s line. Place a blue ball in one hoop and a red ball in the other hoop.

When the teacher calls out a number, the two students with that number must run to a hoop, get their team’s colour ball and bounce it to the other team’s hoop.

in the meantime, the leader of each team, has their team form and sit in a circle. Once the student place the ball in the other team’s hoop, he returns and sits in his team’s circle. The first team all sitting gets a point.

The game continues with the teacher calling out a different number.

4. Stretched Baseball

Play this game on a baseball diamond or line up 4 bases about 10 feet apart with the first base being about 25 feet from home plate.

Divide the class into two teams, one team at bat and the other in the field. Each player gets a turn at bat instead of 3 outs.

Rather than a baseball, you can use a beach ball or T-ball for primary grade students or kick a soccer ball. If the fielding player throws the ball past home plate before the runner reaches home, the runner is out.

Count runs just as in baseball.

5. Club Snatch

Students are divided into two teams and numbered. The teams face each other with a club or similar object placed in the center between the two teams.

The teacher calls a number and that numbered student on each team tries to grab the club and get back to their postion without getting tagged. If the student succeeds, he/she earns a point for their team. The team with the most points wins.

Note: You can give 2 points for getting back safely and 1 point for tagging the player with the object.

6. Tail Snatching

Divide the class into 2 teams and place them a fair distance apart. Give each team, strips of coloured cloth, a different colour for each team. Each player sticks the tail under their belt and is not allowed to tie or hide it.

At the signal, the teams run toward each other and attempt to snatch off each other’s tails. Holding and fighting,etc. are not allowed.

After a few minutes the team that has the most of the other team’s tails is the winner.

Feel free to adapt or change these physical education games according to the needs of your class. Just be sure that you and your students have fun, and if you want more just go to my website.

Should You Offer Continuing Education to Your Employees?

Every manager faces the issue of mentoring and educating the people who work for them.  It’s part of the leadership process to be concerned about improvement and advancement for both the individuals in the group and the group itself.  How do you accomplish it?  Well, everyone has their own style and every organization has its own development philosophy.  So the next step is to put it all together in your own plan for your group. Continuing education is always an option and there is plenty of it available in the market place.  Investing in employees by paying for education and allowing them the time to learn on company time is a good idea.  This boosts morale and makes employees feel valued which eventually equates to higher productivity and lower turnover.  On top of that, you will end up with smarter and more educated employees. There is a cost associated with offering continuing education to employees.  Obviously, the actual cost of the training is a consideration.  The best plan is to always have this in your budget.  If you budget for this up front, then you don’t have to scramble to find money when an education opportunity comes up for your people.   The other consideration is scheduling appropriately for people to be away to attend the training.  As a manager, it may seem too difficult to have people tied up and out of the office.  If you plan appropriately, job responsibilities can be covered while people are out.  If you really get creative, you can possibly plan half day session on site rather than all day out of the office.  There are many ways to schedule if employee investment is important. Investing in your employees by offering continuing education is one of the best choices you can make as a leader. • You benefit by having employees who trust you and know that you support their growth. • The company benefits by having employees who are knowledgeable and engaged. • The employee benefits because the more they know the more valuable they become. • Your customers benefit because they’re getting better services and products from your company because of better employees. • Once again – you benefit when your department excels.  Always remember that you’re only as good as your people are when you’re responsible for managing a department.   To expand a little on the last bullet point…  It may seem odd to some that making sure their people are educated and have the tools they need to excel is one of the ways to excel yourself.  When an employee does a great job, you look good, too.  When you look good, your boss looks good, too.  When you look good to your boss, well – does that really require more conversation?  It doesn’t matter what function your department is responsible for.  Continuing education is always a good thing because so much is available today.  From actual functional training to leadership training to technical training to most anything you can think of – it’s out there and it’s valuable.  There are many programs to choose from.  Your best bet is to do some research about what is available in your area or what kind of training can be brought in.  Develop a plan for taking advantage of what you find for your people. Another option can also be to ask your employees what kind of training they think would be helpful.  Most people know where they want to improve and what they want to learn.  An important part of mentoring and leadership comes with discussions about opportunities for improvement, so potential education falls right into that bucket. So don’t discount continuing education as a waste of time or money.  You’ll short change yourself, your employees, and your company if you do.  Invest in your employees – you’ll never be sorry for being a good leader.

Every manager faces the issue of mentoring and educating the people who work for them.  It’s part of the leadership process to be concerned about improvement and advancement for both the individuals in the group and the group itself.  How do you accomplish it?  Well, everyone has their own style and every organization has its own development philosophy.  So the next step is to put it all together in your own plan for your group.

Continuing education is always an option and there is plenty of it available in the market place.  Investing in employees by paying for education and allowing them the time to learn on company time is a good idea.  This boosts morale and makes employees feel valued which eventually equates to higher productivity and lower turnover.  On top of that, you will end up with smarter and more educated employees.

There is a cost associated with offering continuing education to employees.  Obviously, the actual cost of the training is a consideration.  The best plan is to always have this in your budget.  If you budget for this up front, then you don’t have to scramble to find money when an education opportunity comes up for your people.

The other consideration is scheduling appropriately for people to be away to attend the training.  As a manager, it may seem too difficult to have people tied up and out of the office.  If you plan appropriately, job responsibilities can be covered while people are out.  If you really get creative, you can possibly plan half day session on site rather than all day out of the office.  There are many ways to schedule if employee investment is important.

Investing in your employees by offering continuing education is one of the best choices you can make as a leader.

• You benefit by having employees who trust you and know that you support their growth.

• The company benefits by having employees who are knowledgeable and engaged.

• The employee benefits because the more they know the more valuable they become.

• Your customers benefit because they’re getting better services and products from your company because of better employees.

• Once again – you benefit when your department excels.  Always remember that you’re only as good as your people are when you’re responsible for managing a department.

To expand a little on the last bullet point…  It may seem odd to some that making sure their people are educated and have the tools they need to excel is one of the ways to excel yourself.  When an employee does a great job, you look good, too.  When you look good, your boss looks good, too.  When you look good to your boss, well – does that really require more conversation?

It doesn’t matter what function your department is responsible for.  Continuing education is always a good thing because so much is available today.  From actual functional training to leadership training to technical training to most anything you can think of – it’s out there and it’s valuable.  There are many programs to choose from.  Your best bet is to do some research about what is available in your area or what kind of training can be brought in.  Develop a plan for taking advantage of what you find for your people.

Another option can also be to ask your employees what kind of training they think would be helpful.  Most people know where they want to improve and what they want to learn.  An important part of mentoring and leadership comes with discussions about opportunities for improvement, so potential education falls right into that bucket.

So don’t discount continuing education as a waste of time or money.  You’ll short change yourself, your employees, and your company if you do.  Invest in your employees – you’ll never be sorry for being a good leader.

The Quality of Philippine Education in the New Millennium

Philippine education is strongly viewed as a pillar of national development and a primary avenue for social and economic mobility. It has undergone several stages of development from the pre-Spanish time to the present. It is handled by three government organizations, namely, the Department of Education, Culture, and Sports (DECS), the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). The DECS govern both public and private education in all levels, with its mission “to provide quality basic education that is equitably accessible to all by the foundation for lifelong learning and service for the common good.”

The Filipino people have deep concern for education because it occupies a central place in political, economical, social, and cultural life in the Philippines. The government allocates a high budget every year for Philippine education and guarantees that every Filipino has the right to quality education. However, there are some important issues that needs to be looked closely and resolved by the government. Among the issues are:

  • Quality of Education – This is the first major issue that the Philippine government should resolve but somehow it is recently improving. The quality of Philippine education has declined few years ago due to poor results from standard entrance tests conducted among elementary and secondary students, as well as the tertiary levels. The results were way below the target mean score. High dropout rates, high number of repeaters, low passing grades, lack of particular language skills, failure to adequately respond and address the needs of people with special needs, overcrowded classrooms, and poor teacher performances, have greatly affected the quality of education in the Philippines.
  • Affordability – There is a big disparity in educational achievements across social groups. Students from wealthy families have excellent educational background gained from exclusive private schools at the start of their education until they finish college. Unlike the students from the less fortunate families, wherein most of them could not even finish elementary nor secondary level because of poverty. They could barely afford to buy school shoes and pencils, not even the tiny amount of tuition fees from the public schools.
  • Budget – The government was mandated by the Philippine Constitution to allocate the highest proportion of its budget to education. However, among the ASEAN countries, the Philippines still has one of the lowest budget allocations to education. This is due to some mainstream political issues and humungous problems that the government is facing specially corruption.
  • Mismatch – There is a large proportion of mismatch between training and actual jobs. This issue arises at the tertiary level and causes a large group of unemployed and underemployed. This is very true nowadays because of the arising BPO industries particularly the call center companies. Hundreds of thousands of young professionals, graduates or undergraduates from college level settled at this type of company because of the attractive compensation that they are offering. Call center companies do not require a specific degree of education, what matters to them is the proficiency in the English language.

There are some measures that the Philippine government has looked into for the reformation of quality education. Technology use is starting to gain momentum in the overall education of this country. This helped improve the quality of education in the Philippines and to be globally competitive in this millennium.

How Does A Special Education 504 Plan Differ From An IEP?

The day your child is diagnosed with a learning or cognitive disability can be a difficult one. First the disbelief – the questions, the surprise. Then the emotional – tears – worries about the future, worries that your child won’t have an easy path in the world, the mourning of the possibilities that you might feel have been closed to your child as a result of the diagnosis. Finally, you come to an understanding and acceptance of the diagnosis and the issues at hand. That’s when the work begins. For the next several years , you can expect to deal with experts of all kinds, with special education teachers and program administrators and therapists…all those people whose job it is to take care of your child, to ensure that your child receives the educational and social services they deserve, the services mandated by law. Every parent soon comes to learn, that as good as the intentions of a lot of these people are, the parent has to be an advocate for their child. If you don’t have a good understanding of what is going on in your child’s classroom, of the services and different educational programs provided for children in exceptional circumstances and with differing special needs, your child may not be accessing the services he or she deserves.

Trying to wade through the educational jargon can be difficult. There are many confusing terms parents of children with special needs have to learn when it comes to the world of education. A couple of important phrases you’ll have to understand from the very beginning of your child’s school career are Special Education 504 Plan and IEP. How do they differ, what can you expect from each, who do they serve, what laws do they each fall under, and where do you turn if your local School District isn’t fulfilling their responsibilities ?

In the most basic terms, an IEP is a specialized educational plan specific to your child that is governed by a federal special education law for kids with disabilities, it covers 13 particular diagnoses, It must be a written document, and there are people in specific positions within the school district who must be involved with its creation. It is also mandated in the law that parents must be involved with the creation of IEPs.

A Special Education 504 Plan, on the other hand, comes from a federal civil rights law (not an education law) that was put into place to stop discrimination against those with disabilities, including children in schools. A 504 Plan covers other disabilities beyond those in the IDEA . This would include learning disabilities and other cognitive disabilities that do not qualify for an IEP. It is not necessary that this be a written plan, though in many cases it will be. Also it is not mandated who within the school district / school must have responsibility for its creation. Regardless of whether your child is identified as needing a 504 Plan or an IEP – your child is going to need an advocate. As a parent, you are your child’s only permanent advocate. It’s important to remember that as nice as they might be, for those who work within the school districts, your child is just one of many, and the sad truth is that if you don’t keep on top of what is happening in the classroom, and with your child’s educational plan, whatever kind it is, it’s very likely your child with special needs won’t access all the services they need to succeed and thrive. It is important to be involved and aware.

Speech therapy: An effective aspect of special education services

Speech therapy is an indispensable aspect of several special education programs at schools for children with special needs.

A speech therapist or a speech-language pathologist (SLP) aims to eliminate or reduce speech deficits caused by the varying abilities of students.

There are several key skill-sets that are involved in communicating effectively. Communication is, in fact, the final goal of all speech therapy interventions. Speech therapy is a step-by-step learning process that involves the development of speech, language andpragmatics, apart from making room for minimising the effect of cognitive impairments, if any, on the communication abilities of a child.

There are seven core areas that an SLP would help develop as part of the special education services of a school or speech therapy centre. These areas are built around the three legs of effective communication: speech, language and ‘communicating’.

Speech

What is speech?

Speech, in the realm of speech pathology, includes:

Articulation skills

Speech fluency

Voice

1. Articulation and speech intelligibility

The distinct speech sounds that form a word are called phonemes. Articulation is the formation of clear and distinct sounds or phonemes.

An SLP helps students overcome erroneous articulation. This helps the child’s speech become more intelligible to others.

Language

What is language?

Language is the structured and conventional way of using symbols such as words and gestures to communicate one’s thoughts, ideas and feelings.

Whilst referring to the usage of words as symbols, language refers to the formation of meaningful sentences with the right vocabulary and grammar.

Sometimes, a child may seem to have difficulty pronouncing words whereas his/her real problem lies in stringing words together to form sentences.

2. Expressive language skills

Expressive language skills refer to the ability to express yourself. The SLP can help your child learn new words and put them together in the form of phrases and sentences, in order to prepare them to communicate effectively.

3. Receptive language skills

Receptive language skills refer to the ability to understand what others are saying.

An SLP can help enrich the child’s vocabulary and teach them how to use language rules to understand instructions, respond to queries and participate in conversation.

4. Speech fluency

Speech fluency refers to the ability to articulate, speak at the right rhythm and use the right intonation and tone of voice.

Stuttering is the presence of breaks or ‘disfluencies’ in speech owing to the prolongation or repetition of sounds and words.

An SLP can help alleviate the problem of stuttering by aiming to reduce behaviors that play a part in causing a person to stutter.

Communication

What is communication?

Communication can be termed as the process of sharing or exchanging thoughts and information.

5. Pragmatics

The rules for communicating socially are known as ‘pragmatics’.

A child may have clear articulation and may even be able to form meaningful sentences but if they don’t have a good understanding of the rules of social communication, they may say things that are out-of-context or inappropriate.

Pragmatics involves three types of skills:

– Using language to communicate in different ways, so as to make a demand, ask a question and so on

– Using language differently while talking to different people (a child vs. adult) or in different places (indoors vs. outdoors)

– Following the rules of social conversation, such as taking turns to speak, sticking to the topic and introducing a new topic

An SLP helps teach students these key social communication skills to enable effective and appropriate communication in social settings.

6. Cognitive-communication skills

Cognition refers to what goes on in the mind of a person. Communication requires cognitive skills such as memory, reasoning, analyzing and problem-solving.

For students who need special education services, some of these cognitive functions may be impaired.

To help substitute such deficits or to strengthen specific cognitive functions, an SLP may employ a host of techniques and exercises.

7. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC)

In certain cases, cognitive impairments may be severe and may inhibit oral speech. Sign language, picture boards and speech generating devices may be used to help such students communicate. Speech therapy can be continued alongside to assist the development of oral speech.

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The fundamental function of the mission is to provide higher technical education to weaker class of society at minimum coaching fee for urban as well as rural areas the vast mono of our institute is to respond technical knowledge all over to India to gain success in the vocational program including computer education which is the main dream of Indian Govt.Shyama Educational Group (SEG)is an ISO 9001:2008 certified organization
The organization is spanned in multiple location in the country including Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Himanchal  Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh The salient characteristic of the mission is to uplift the weakest education section of the society in the sphere of vocational and technical  knowledge to gain opportunity for placement anywhere in India,

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Science teaching in primary school: It’s implication for Nigeria

SCIENCE TEACHING IN PRIMARY SCHOOL: IT’S IMPLICATION FOR NIGERIA

BY

AINA, JACOB KOLA

B.Sc (ED) Physics, PGDE, M.Ed(sci. Edu)

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

KWARA STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATIION (T) LAFIAGI

KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract

The study took a descriptive survey of science teaching in primary school in Edu Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. Questionnaire containing 30 items in two sections was used to sample teacher’s views on science teaching in primary schools. Analysis of the returned questionnaire was done using frequency count and percentages. Results revealed that none science teachers were teaching science, no science laboratory and library with relevant science textbooks. One of the recommendations was that science in primary school must be taught by specialized science teachers.

                                     

 

Background to the problem

Science can be define in many ways by different author and researcher. However, it is common to all definitions that science is a body of knowledge characterized by unbiased observation and systematic experimentation.

In all level of education and in any nation of the world science is the same but the teachings differ. To have good results in any human endeavour there must be a good foundation, that is why science teaching in primary school should be taken very serious. According to Momoh (2001) primary education is the foundation of formal education on which the subsequent levels of the nation’s education system rest.

We have many unqualified science teachers in primary school today; not professionally unqualified but they are not qualified to teach science. For a sound teaching of primary science, teachers in primary schools must be given urgent and adequate attention as opined by Momoh (2001).

Science is different from all other disciplines and its teaching and curriculum must be different too. Akinola (2006) observed poor teacher’s method of teaching and structuring of curriculum as problems of primary science teaching. Uchenna (2005) affirmed that the greatest challenge in education in Africa has been the question of curriculum development, especially science curriculum at all levels of education.

Maduabum (1991) in a paper titled Primary School Science Teaching in Nigeria: A need for Re-Appraisal, said primary education is the bedrock of our educational continuum and it requires a solid foundation in science. The words of Yoloye (1994) that primary education in Nigeria is in a state of crisis are true because of what we are witnessing today.

Science must be made real to the pupil in primary schools through good method of teaching, use of good instructional materials and improvisation where necessary. According to Daniel (2001), teachers need to be exposed to the production and learning materials using available resources especially at this age of information technology.

Abimbola (1999) observed that, the primary; purpose of using instrumental materials in teaching and learning process is to make teaching more effective and facilitate learning. However, it will amount to wasteful exercise if a teacher decides to use materials that are not readily available or too cost to purchase; therefore the idea of improvisation set in.

Okoye (2007) affirmed that the quality of and educational programme of a school is determined to a very great extent by the quality of its library.

Research questions

The following questions were raised to guide the study

  1. 1.     Do non-science teachers teach primary science?
  2. 2.     Are there provisions for staff development in primary schools?
  3. 3.     Are there adequate provisions for conducting science practical in primary schools?
  4. 4.     Do teacher proffer solution to inadequate supply of instructional material where necessary?
  5. 5.     Are there relevant sources of information centre for teaching science in primary school?

Procedure

The research was a descriptive survey type. The target population was all primary school teachers in kwara state. The sampled population was all teachers teaching science in Edu Local Government Areas primary school, kwara State. A total of 118 science teachers took part in the study.

Questionnaire developed by the researchers containing 7 items and 23 items in section A and B respectively was used to collect data.

The researcher personally took the questionnaire to the Local Government Board through which it was administered to the teachers and collected back through same. The data collocated were analyzed using frequency count and percentages. The result is presented in the tables below to answer research questions raised.

Kids school in India, Nursery school in India

Education plays an important role in the society. Without education there would be no question of growth and development of the society. In true sense, education is the most important assert of the society. Education is the real life blood of the society. Considering the importance of education, many nursery and kids schools in India have been oriented towards the system of education. They implement different methods and techniques to imbibe the true nature of education within. In comparison to home education, Nursery and primary school are more important, according to study. For children’s academic progress, a good pre-school and primary education has more impact.

So, elementary education is the prime need for the children. We will never able to run, if don’t know how to walk. Here are some reasons why your little one should be provided with good nursery education. Pre-primary education prepares your child for kindergarten and future school. It allows your child to build a base for his future education.

It develops children’s inner skills and helps the child to develop his personality. It allows a child to inculcate positive feelings. Some Nursery schools in India have also engaged in providing various activities for children in such a way that their inner talents are exposed.

Primary education helps to develop child’s creativity, so that in a natural way, the child is able to develop his personality.  Nursery schools in India also provide amicable atmosphere with a view to adjust with his peers and learns to interact with outsiders. Many schools are also oriented to introduce scientific curriculum with a view to ensure the all-round development of the child.
A renowned pre-schools teach a child not only social skills and develop its ability to adjust in its social environment. Nursery schools in India also focus on teaching social etiquettes to your child. Some of the group activities involve teaching manners and etiquettes to your child. Group activities offered by the nursery schools are meant to develop child’s personality. Many schools are interested in conducting school trips with a view to create disciplinary treats.

Many nursery schools in India are highly interested to implement scientific teaching learning process. They also emphasises on innovation and motivation. These two factors play a stupendous role in the life of the children. For all-round development of child’s personality, Innovative teaching learning strategy is highly required.
If the nursery schools are not able to motivation and innovativeness, the whole education system will be derailed. In true sense, an effective teaching learning process depends on efficient implementation of motivational and innovative traits.

Besides, providing nursery education, many educational institutions are well aware of the gory and importance primary education. As per the report, 20% of Indian children between the ages of six and 14 are not enrolled in school and the attendance rates among enrolled children are low and 26% of pupils enrolled in primary school drop out before Grade 5.

The Truth About Our Physical Education History

You played volleyball, ran a mile on the track, and ducked before being hit in the face during a vigorous game of dodge ball? Physical education has been part of the educational scene for nearly 200 years. It is vital that students participate in physical education to keep their mind and body in peak learning condition. Currently, the childhood obesity rate is dangerously climbing to epidemic levels. Therefore, the focus on physical education is more important then ever before.The question is how should physical education be conducted? First, take a look at physical education history. Physical education has evolved over the years. Physical education is defined as “instruction in the development and care of the body ranging from simple calisthenics exercises to a course of study providing training in hygiene, gymnastics, and the performance and management of athletic games (Merriam-Webster Dictionary).” This definition is broad because you can learn several topics ranging from the rules of basketball to sex education. It depends on the school policies of your state educational system.

Physical education was officially recognized in the United States in the early 1800’s. Colleges and Universities began to offer physical education programs throughout the 1800’s. Finally, in 1866 California was the first to mandate physical education. Many states followed this mandate within the next 30 years. The importance of training the body as well as the mind became prevalent in the educational system.

The 20th century brought varying levels of physical education to each state. Presidents such as Eisenhower and Kennedy promoted physical education and fitness. Children took the Presidential Fitness test each year to assess their physical fitness level. This arose from the need for U.S. students to be as physical fit as their European counterparts.

Controversial issues have played an integral role in physical education history. For example, in 1972 Title IX banned sexual discrimination in schools regarding sports and academics. This allowed female athletes to actively participate in team sports other than cheerleading with the financial and emotional support of the school system.

Another controversial issue is sexual education. It has been the subject of intense debate for many decades. Each state has specific guidelines about what will be taught and whether students can opt out of the sexual education program. Some states allow students to watch a video of a child being born while other states only discuss abstinence.

The official employment of physical education programs has a 200 year history which has become home to controversial issues, social reform, and overall child well being. Physical education will continue to evolve as the needs of the student population changes, societal attitudes fluctuate, and the flow of educational funds towards physical education is maintained.

Williamsburg Northside a Brooklyn Elementary School Introduces physical and health education classes

Williamsburg Northside Lower School, a Brooklyn elementary school, offers various health and physical education classes for its students. According to the school, the purpose of the physical education program is to empower the Brooklyn elementary school’s students to sustain regular, lifelong physical activity as a foundation for a healthy, productive, and fulfilling life.

Becoming a physically educated person is a developmental process that begins in early childhood and continues throughout one’s life. The physical education program offers fundamental movement skills in the area of body awareness, spatial orientation, relationships, object manipulation, games, and sports. Principles of good sportsmanship, as well as respectful competition and safety in the gymnasium are emphasized throughout the year. These programs vary according to age groups and grades.

Kindergarten:

The program emphasizes body and spatial awareness, locomotor and non-locomotor skills. Its aim is for children to feel enjoyment and confidence in themselves and their abilities. Goals and activities include:

  • Locomotor skills—hopping, skipping, jumping
  • Non-manipulative skills—balancing, rolling, stretching
  • Manipulative skill—dribbling, volleying, collecting
  • Cooperative games
  •  The ability to demonstrate healthful practices such as washing hands, covering one’s mouth when coughing or sneezing, and brushing and flossing teeth.

First grade:

First grade builds on the skills already learned, with a greater emphasis on manipulative skills. Students of the Brooklyn elementary are also given an opportunity to explore stationary and moving balance as well as health and fitness concepts. Goals and activities include:

  • Experience with manipulative skills such as throwing, catching, volleying, and dribbling
  • Striking with implements—rackets, bats, hockey sticks
  • Introduction to health-and-fitness topics such as the food guide and physical activity pyramids
  • Understand how behaviors such as food selection, exercise, and rest affect growth and development.

Second Grade:

Second grade involves increased interaction between traveling and directions, levels (high, medium, low) and pathways (curved, straight, zigzag). Goals and activities include:

  • Circus arts—juggling, spinning plates
  • Bowling
  • Chasing, fleeing, dodging
  • Kicking and punting
  • The ability to demonstrate the use of interpersonal skills to enhance health

Third Grade:

Third grade builds on the curriculum by working toward demonstrating the mature form of moving in selected combinations of locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative skills. Goals include the ability to:

  • Identify movement in terms of effort (how the body moves), space (where the body moves), and relationships (with objects, people or both).
  • Know and apply principles and components of health-related fitness.
  • Begin to demonstrate mature form in various skills.
  • Develop injury prevention and management strategies for personal health.

Fourth Grade:

Although health issues are integrated throughout the elementary years, they are formally discussed beginning in fourth grade.

1)      Motor: Small-sided games—that is, few players per team—are introduced in fourth grade.

Students use cooperation and problem-solving skills to accomplish group or team goals.

Goals include the ability to:

  • Respond to winning and losing with dignity and understanding
  • Experiences with increased interaction between locomotor skills, non-locomotor skills, and manipulative skills
  • Understand strategies related to offense and defense

2)      Health: In fourth grade there is a deeper look into the influence of culture, media, technology, and other factors on health. Health is influenced by a variety of factors, including the cultural context as well as media and technology. Students of the Brooklyn elementary school use their critical thinking and problem-solving skills to analyze, evaluate, and interpret the influence of these factors on health. The goals include:

 

  • Describing how culture influences personal health behaviors
  • Explaining how information from school and family influences health
  • Describing ways technology can influence health
  • Explaining how media influences thoughts, feelings, and health behaviors

Fifth Grade:

1)      Motor: Fifth graders begin identifying muscle groups when performing specific actions and applying movement concepts using speed variables. Goals include the ability to:

  • Recognize and communicate feedback
  • Understand fitness components related to cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance and flexibility
  • Understand, respect, and appreciate individuals on the basis of their unique characteristics as well as their contributions to a group.

2)      Health: In fifth grade, the students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of the five aspects of health —mental, emotional, physical, social, and spiritual—and the wellness spectrum—a scale showing possible health conditions from premature death to optimal health—and how they relate to overall health. The Brooklyn Elementary students also learn about the negative impact chemical substances can have on health. The program discusses tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, as well as describes the differences between helpful and potentially harmful substances. Objectives include:

  • Identifying ways to cope with or seek assistance as necessary when confronted with situations involving alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs
  • Describing the cycle of growth and development in humans and other animal species
  • Using goal-setting and decision-making skills to enhance health

Education and literacy Status of Kerala

The educational scenario in Kerala is far advanced than other states of India. As well as, Kerala model of development owes it attributed success to the achievements in the area of education. A lot of changes and development in the field of education has occurred since independence. Kerala had pursued a liberal higher education policy from 1956 through mid eighties in terms of quantitative expansion and access to higher education. At present, it boasts other states in terms of high literacy rate of 90.86% as against 65.38% in the national level.

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Schools and colleges in Kerala are run either by the private trusts, government, and persons. The schools in Kerala are affiliated to the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), as well as the Kerala State Education Board (KBSE). The KBSE always declares the all results of Kerala boardon its official website that URL is www.keralaresults.nic.in. It means it also declares the Kerala Results 2015 on its official website.

The Education Department of the state gives special attention to the primary education. Therefore, primary schools in Kerala include private aided, confidential unaided, along with government schools. Although both Malayalam and English are offered as medium of instructions by the state run schools, the majority of the private schools resort to English as their language of teaching. In addition, after completing the secondary education that involves 10 years of schooling. After declaration of Kerala board 10th class results, Scholars usually enroll in higher secondary education in any one of the three streams – Commerce, Science, as well as Humanities/Arts. Apart from this there are teacher training institutes, special schools for the differently able persons, as well as an Anglo Indian High School.

Running Status of Education in Kerala

If we talk about the 2015, then Kerala Board 10th and 12th board examination was finished on March month of 2015. Now, the board is going to declare the Kerala Board SSLC and HSC (10th and 12th) result 2015 on its official website. It will be declared the Kerala SSLC Result 2015 on 20 April 2015 on its official website. Thus, students (who are waiting for the SSLC Result of Kerala board) can check their result on the official website of Kerala on 20 April 2015 by the help of their roll number, name, and other details if needed.

Kerala board 12th class examination was successfully ended on March 2015. So, Students who have given the 12th class (HSE) examination by Kerala Board also waiting for their HSE Results 2015. Thus, we are informing to all students who are waiting for the HSE result can check their result 3rd week of June 2015.  The exact date of result declaration is not announced by the Kerala Board. However, as per the notification of board the Kerala HSE Results 2015will be declared on June 2015.

Literacy Status of Kerala

Kerala with its rich culture of respecting womanhood had given due value to her rights and needs boosting herself regard. We pride ourselves on being the state with the highest literacy rate among women, a state where female to male ratio is upper, suggesting that there are fewer numbers of selective abortion. The Kerala evidence suggests that literate men have literate sons, other than literate women have literate families. According to the norms of National Literacy Mission, the literacy rate above 90% shall be treated as complete literacy.

education_kerala.jpg

As per this foundation, Kerala (90.86%) was declared a Fully Literate State on 18th April 1991. It has 87.86% of women in the state are literate which is extremely higher (33.7) than the national literacy rate of women. As well as, the break-up of male and female literacy rates are 94.2% and 87.86% in that order. It seems that more than three-fourth percent of the total population are literate and there exists not much discrepancy between male and female population. Therefore, the female literacy rate was growing at 1.69% (1991-2001) as against the male literacy growth rate of 0.58% in the state of Kerala. A number of states are still lagging behind the level attained by Kerala in 1951.

History of Education, Teacher Training, Teaching, Teachers

A Concise History of Education of Teachers, of Teacher Training and Teaching

Western history of teacher training, education history, teaching theories, education of teachers, modern history od education, began in early 18th century Germany: teaching seminaries educating teachers were the first formal teacher training in Western history of education and teaching.

(History of education had 2nd century-BC Greek Spartan free public education, Athenian Academy until age 18 and higher Academy and Lyceum; Roman private formal schooling in tiers; China’s 1st century-BC administrator examinations; 1st century Jewish informal Cul’ Tura general education; Islam’s 9th century universities [madrasahs]; 16th century Aztec mandatory teen education; 18th century Russian nation-wide education, Poland’s Education Ministry, Chez ‘teacher of nations’ Comenius’s ‘Didactica Magna’ on universal education [compulsory, certified teachers, tests]; leading later Western history of education –17th century Scotland’s free education, 18th’s Norway’s mandatory literacy and  New Zealand’s standard education, 21st’s Europe’s Bologna process equalising educational qualifications.)

Teacher education and training, first teacher training college in French  history of education and history of teaching, Jean Babtiste de la Salle’s 18th century Brothers of the Christian schools, had non-clerical male teachers teaching poor and middle class children. Based on Greek philosophers’ philosophy of education and teaching, re-introduced by Islam, spirituality was not its only reason, basis of education. Teacher education and training had been clerical –this was Western history of education’s first secular teacher training college.

This philosophy of education changed educational history’s attitude to education. It reformed education, educational theory, learning, enabled further education reforms and educational theories of teaching in history of education. With education reforms in education history, educational theory of teacher education required of teachers an understanding of the human mind and the theory of education, knowledge of sciences and arts, principles and educational methods of teaching. This need in educational history for a teaching method, method of education, necessitated theories of education -in Western history of education educational theories on teacher education interested educators.

These educational philosophies and theories of education on teacher education became the norm in Western history of education, teacher training establishments first Normal Schools in the history of education and training of teachers.

Teacher education progressed educational history: in history of education and history of teaching the system of education required and enabled knowledge, in-service experience, certification for teachers, continuing professional development for teachers in teaching. This non-uniform system of teacher education and training enabled teachers, while teaching, at teacher seminars to refresh and increase their knowledge of theory of education and method of teaching -exchanging ideas among teachers.

Napoleon, in history of education and teacher training,  uniformed professional teaching. Adopting Germany’s teacher seminars, in French history of education and in Western history of education and training of teachers, established the first uniform teacher education system.

Neither the USA’s educational history nor British history of education did in educational philosophies, systems of education, include formal teacher education and training, although Elizabeth-I had introduced teachers’ moral teaching fitness certification in teacher education .

In England’s history of education and teaching, in early 19th century Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell founded the Lancastarian teaching method of teacher training: in a monitorial system of teacher education and training senior students (‘monitors’) receiving teaching from tutors were teaching junior students, acting as teachers.

In Scotland’s history of education and teaching, 17th century free education compulsory in late 19th, Germany’s teacher education and training influenced David Stowe’s founding the Glasgow Normal Seminary for teachers.

Progress in teaching and teacher training began with Horace Mann’s Massachusetts Normal Schools in the USA’s educational history, and in Britain’s history of education by the churches’ and voluntary organisations’ teacher training colleges and teaching the colonials.

In philosophies of education arguments followed on teacher education in educational history: should persons of lower English social class attend teacher training colleges and give teaching to children of higher social class!? Might teachers’ teaching not influence young French minds with liberal ideas?!

(Japan’s educational philosophy [perhaps influencing the USA’s educational philosophy, history of education and teaching] emphasised patriotic teacher education and teaching.)

In Europe’s history of teacher education and training, Rosencrantz’s 19th century ‘Philosophy of Education’ emphasised ‘philosophical and psychological data’; this, resembling Islam’s university faculties, developed into separate teaching disciplines.

In Sweden’s history of education and teaching, Pestalozzi furthered the progress of systems of education, advocating formal teacher training colleges.

(Pestalozzi, except theologically, was self-educated, did not leave a written account of teaching and of teacher training colleges; his place in the history of education and teaching is deducible in outline from his various writings, loving sincere deeds, the example he set.)

Germany’s Froebel, and Alexander Bain’s ‘Education as a Science’, favoured education of teachers through teacher training colleges; teacher education adopted what philosophies of education in Western educational history and teaching had lacked -Herbart’s pedagogical emphasis in teaching on five formal steps: preparation, presentation, comparison, generalisation, application.

Germany’s teacher education and training became the basis of developments in the history of education and teacher training; Derwent Coleridge and James Kay Shuttleworth in Britain, Mann in the USA broadly agreed: teacher education and training should emphasise techniques of teaching -“not only the subjects of instructions, but also the method of teaching”.

Jules Ferry laws’ compulsory education established teacher education and training in late 19th century French history of education: teacher education and training, by law, should be through formal teacher training colleges.

English speaking countries’ history of education and teaching, formal teacher education and training, began with the University of Edinburgh’s creating a chair in education, with St. Andrews; in the USA’s history of education, e.g., Henry Bernard, Nicholas Murray Butler, followed.

In Western history of education, England’s progress involved pedagogy and Herbart Sepencer’s teaching techniques in teacher education and training, the USA’s e.g., Francis W. Parker’s, studying Germany’s pedagogical teacher education developments.

In the USA’s history of education and teaching the Darwinian hypothesis (as before later scientific evaluation) influenced John Dewey at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools; taking into account from other disciplines what were considered relevant in teaching to child development, the religiously affiliated Brown University founded an education department.

(The La Salle College in Philadelphia, had been teaching education.)

New York’s Teachers College, founded 1888, was incorporated into the Columbia University, 1893, establishing its teacher training college, announcing: “The purpose of the Teacher Training College is to afford opportunity, both theoretical and practical, for the training of teachers, of both sexes, for kindergartens and elementary schools and secondary schools, of principals, supervisors, and superintendents of schools, and of specialists in various branches of school work, involving normal schools and colleges” -it became the basis, in Western history of education and teaching, of teacher education and training and Teacher Colleges.

(The USA’s educational history experts’ versions vary on it history of education.) 

In most of British Commonwealth’s history of education and system of teacher training, entry into teacher training came to require senior secondary education at High School level or British Grammar School education with national Matriculation or Ordinary and Advanced General Certificate of Education (GCE) examinations –or equivalent.

In Europe’s history of education and teacher training, education with similar Gymnasium(/Abitur)  or General Lycè e Diploma, or equivalent education, became professional teacher education and training entry qualification.

(In British history of education, until early 20th century, holders of those qualifications, by selection examination, could become temporary teachers. Oxbridge graduates could register ‘master’ and be syndicated teachers. Other universities’ graduates, to become teachers, attended teacher training colleges [if Bachelor of Education, second year teacher training of a teacher training college].)

In British Commonwealth’s history of education greater importance was attached to professionalism in teacher education and training: academic qualifications did not suffice for teaching; teacher examinations required specific periods of specifically professional study in teaching. Professional teaching involved two years’ professional study in teaching and additional in-house teacher training before professional teacher status. Professional teachers could, with another educational year at the teacher training college, specialise in a subject, e.g., geography or history (in farming colonies, e.g., Cyprus where Agriculture became a secondary school examination subject,  with one or two more educational years’ through the Teacher Training College’s Rural Agricultural School). Science graduates without professional teaching training and education qualified for permanent teaching after a year’s classroom teaching experience approved by professionally qualified headmasters, as teachers of their subjects. Teachers were expected to attend teachers’ seminars as continuing professional development.

While professional qualifications are regarded for professional reasons equivalent to doctorates in their counterparts and what qualify for teaching, teacher education and training (school age becoming lower and years less, to enable maturer teachers and teaching), for professional teaching knowledge and skills acquired at teacher training colleges, favoured bachelor degrees with teaching content emphasising skills over theory and, e.g., the USA’s academic ‘first professional degree’ –more for research than professional practice.

(British history of education desired teaching with Post-graduate Certificate in Education [PGCE] -for English state school teaching Qualified Teacher Status [QTS] skills test, and [also if Bachelor of Education] successfully completing an induction year [in Scotland two] in school teaching as Newly Qualified Teacher [NQT], with continuing professional development; alternatively a specific teaching degree or on-the-job teacher training. Teachers trained at Teacher Training Colleges in [former] colonies –and similarly trained teachers with GCSE [grade C] or equivalent in English and Mathematics [for primary school teaching, also Physics] enjoy Qualified Teacher Status.)

(Canada’s provinces or schools certify teachers; Australia requires none for federally funded private schools; France’s is college/bachelor and Teacher Institute [master’s -2010].)

{In the USA’s history of education, until 1960s, one year’s teacher training college education was required for teacher certification. In 1984 an alternate teaching route was introduced: bachelor’s with teaching preparation and within a specified number of years completing a teaching or content based master’s. (Some universities award [with summer study] bachelor degrees in two years, some two bachelor degrees simultaneously [e.g., with two arts and two science majors both BA Philosophy and BS ChE Chemical Engineering]; the  doctoral JD is pre-requisite to master’s LL.M which not all tenured professors need posses.) The ‘Master of Professional Studies’ (MPS) First Professional Degree is academic, not professional. Many states require of teachers, for permanent teaching, examinations in pedagogy and a content area or general knowledge accredited by many private associations’ varying standards; in early 21st century Marlboro-Carolina 20% of teachers had no certification.}

In educational history post general education having been academic for career advancement and scholarly activity or research, or professional for actual practice in the filed, the professional qualification is normally the terminating qualification; in professional teaching, advanced professional degrees enabling specialised teaching, e.g., at universities, are not regarded as part of professional teacher education and training for general education teaching; the USA’s main master’s area is for Ed.D or Ph.D. –research.)

In European history of education, teaching related educational leadership gained importance at the end of 20th century. Desiring the benefits of learnable leadership skills and inherent personal leadership qualities, teachers’ educational leadership skills in teaching leadership are remunerated according to national teacher pay scales.

The USA’s educational leadership teachers’ pay is non-uniform; educational leadership skills standards vary. Graduate educational leadership programs are in, e.g., community issues and educational law. Private Teacher Advancement Programmes (TAP) subscribed by some schools encourage teachers in administrative or teaching development: a teacher prepares an individual growth plan (IGP) with an educational goal or teaching activity, or a cluster group of teachers identify a student learning need, becoming ‘mentor’ or ‘master teacher’/‘teacher of teachers’.

As others’, USA’s teacher training colleges’ comparable teaching qualifications enjoy international regard.

In their history of education, having less aspired to ‘practical’ general education as in the USA and 21st century Britain, most British Commonwealth and European teaching institutions almost uniformly value widely academic general education as culture not acquirable in post general education (e.g., an opposition leader to a Prime Minister [both lawyers] “I as a Grammar School boy” [would not take ‘that’ from him who was not]) and Britain’s suggestion to equate practical skills certificates with general academic qualifications was criticised.

(Early 21st century British educational history saw [university or equivalent  mandatory student grants becoming loans, unemployment necessitating longer and more courses, foreigners scoring higher in English] no increase since late 20th in literacy.)

(In the USA’s history of education, with 20% adult functional illiteracy, as the educationists’ concerns grew, the educationalists considered Europe’s baccalaureate system of education; with growing public interest in education, at the end of 20th century a state appointed three generals to improve the standards of teaching and education and at the beginning of 21st century a general was appointed to federally improve teaching and educational standards.)

In educational history interest in the teaching profession has been based on the status of teachers. Regard for teachers in late 20th century was highest in Russia where teachers enjoyed better employment terms than elsewhere.

(In Britain’s history of education, 1980s’ miss-projection of numbers of teachers needed necessitated engaging science graduates without teaching qualifications as teachers; but a status was enjoyed by teachers of regard as in Europe, and, about the end of 20th century, knighthood for long serving teachers was suggested –due to controversy over peerages it did not materialise. At the beginning of 21st century reducing undergraduate degrees to two years with vocational content was considered, with master’s for teachers -also non-major professional qualifications being above undergraduate degrees in National Vocational Qualifications; but Teachers’ status was regarded to have been equated for economical reasons to classroom assistants’ socially criticised for taking classes without professional teacher education and training.])

In the USA’s history of education, teaching has hailed a form of essentialism in education, with a culture of practicality and model citizenry, emphasising respect for authority (advocated also for 21st century British education); with no general minimum standard in teacher training and education, some states not recognising the teaching qualifications of some others, teachers and teaching appear officially to enjoy no higher regard then Bernard Shaw’s remark (about writers) “Those who can, do; those who can not, teach”.

(In the USA, e.g., some teachers paid only term time having to seek vacation work, teaching and teachers generally are regarded to have enjoyed less good terms and conditions than elsewhere in proportion to social regard and public resources.)

The growth of interest in culture and education in Western history of teaching has been seen in the European Union, e.g., in Cyprus with the popularisation of education in mid. 20th century -reportedly with highest percentage of university graduates by 21st.

In Western educational reforms spiritual values in education are protected by teaching religious studies in schools in American secularism (protection of religion from political influence) and by the religious affiliations of many universities; in European secularism (protecting against one’s formal dominance of the other), often with a state religion enshrined in the constitution, this is ensured by, e.g., Britain’s Education Acts’ requirement in compulsory education of religious worship by pupils at least once a month and, while British universities are not formally religiously affiliated, the availability of  chapels and chaplains to students at universities.

While preferences in education (e.g., the pedagogy based Steiner-Waldorf education for creating free moral and integrated individuals -its teachers’ and schools’ say on defining the curricula by some disagreed with, or Montessori’s pre-school and elementary school child’s self directed activities with auto-didactic equipment -regarded by some as risking raising obedient automatons), and  emphasis (be it practical skills or Emerson’s ‘thinking man’), have all had praise and criticism in the history of education and teaching and arguments continue on pragmatism and creation -v- evolution, generally Socrates’s argument that the rightly trained mind turns toward virtue carries weight in most educational systems. Basically, in every history of education, an important aim of education and the societies’ all time expectations have been on the lines of these verses (by the Cypriot teacher, the late Orhan Seyfi Ari):

” ‘I was an ape’ you say -or amphibian?
And now?! Are you not now.. ‘man’!? ”

The cultural values balance have been more reflected in the education and training of teachers in Western history of education and teaching and the status of teachers in Europe mostly in Spain, Italy and France where, without much disregard to spiritual values, school teachers’ political and ideological affiliations have been the norm in professional teaching.

Importance of Certificate Course on Special education

The child with a special need inspire you to be a special person. Present day, almost every school includes a number of learners who are dealing with some sort of disability – either physical, or emotional. As a teacher, one probably finds herself in a jostling position to get information and resources to teach effectively those special kids and help them learn successfully. Special education is the method of educating students with special needs in a way that serves their individual needs. This process involves a specially planned and systematically supervised process of teaching skills, adapted equipment and accessible settings. This arbitration is designed to help the special child with special needs achieve a state of the art level of personal self reliance and success in school and their stomping ground which would not be available if the special child is only given access to a traditional classroom education. Special Education provides a number of activities which are specifically framed toward teaching to special students. The activities can be applied for students from kindergarten through high school.

All special students with special needs are unique in their behaviour. Their needs must be recognized by teacher. Regardless of the person’s behaviour by which his/ her needs are determined, teachers can implement new skills as soon as a student’s need is realized. It is also important to assess the effectiveness of strategies applied and revise them in order to achieve success. Teaching special education is a very challenging job. However teaching students with disabilities or other special needs can become an exciting daily exploration. While discovering new teaching methods and ways to organize the classroom will also be searched out. It would become the primary objective of an ongoing process throughout the school year. The happened upon things made during this exploration will assist the teacher in preparing a lesson plan having lead in pencil for the whole class, as well as for each and every student.

All special education learners need to have an individualized education plan. A favorable outcome for the special needs student requires a bull’s eye on individual achievement progress and individual learning. This requires a specific, supervised, individualized, intensive remedial instruction of individual students who are struggling. The challenges of teaching a special child with learning disabilities can be overcome by modifying the skills in which information is presented. When in a teaching special education classes a teacher should use diagrams, videos and pictures to build up what he/ she is trying to explain.  This strategy is good for the visual and auditory students at the same time. In a special education class the main attention should be given to most favourable learning conditions in the form of skill modification which will allow the student with learning disabilities to show his/ her existing skills while learning a new lesson. In an inclusive Certificate Course on Special education provides a sharp wittedness on how to teach the special learners with an understanding of the psycho-social characteristic

Special Educational Services – As Defined by IDEA

A good education is comprised of an itinerary that gives children an acumen to appreciate the world around them. But some children with disabilities or behavioral issues have a lot of ground to cover when it comes to learning in a commonplace teaching sphere. It may become strenuous and exhausting for them if their learning environment does not take into account their special needs. These are children that may be facing social, physical, mental or emotional delays. This facet of delays is designated as developmental delays and muster all-inclusive aspects of comprehensive development like –

  • Physical and Motor Skills
  • Cognitive skills
  • Scholastic skills
  • Language and speech
  • Social and Emotional  skills

Special education schools in Manhattan offer special educational programs to address the unique needs of such children. These special programs incorporate special teaching methodologies, ideas and mediums that are not usually a part of a regular, long-established school environment. The special education services provided by the state of NY do not charge extra fees from the families and caregivers of the children until they reach the age of 21. However, there are additional special educational services available for adults after the age of 21.

The federal law for special education, IDEA or the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act has categorized these afflictions into certain groups.

  • Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are categorized as neurodevelopmental delays, which tend to create barriers in an individual’s efforts to communicate (verbally or non-verbally) and hence resulting in detached social interactions. Children on this spectrum often suffer from repetitive behavior patterns and may struggle to cope with even a slight change in their daily routine or environment. Their responses to sensory stimuli is not habitual.

  • Multiple Disabilities

Children with multiple disabilities have associated impairments, such as intellectual disabilities combined with orthopedic impairment. Such concomitant disabilities require special educational programs that are predominantly designed to match distinctive requirements of affiliated impairments.

  • Speech/language impairment

A Speech/language impairment is defined as a communication disorder that includes talking with continued reflexive recapitulation of sounds or an impaired articulation that may have an unfavorable effect on a child’s communication and academic learning abilities.

  • Intellectual Disability

Intellectual disability is revealed through a child’s development phase. It effects the functioning of intelligence along with deficits in adaptive behavior.

  • Developmental Delays

Children in the age group of 0-9 years of age have a higher possibility of being diagnosed with developmental delays. It is usually diagnosed in children by the age of nine. Children suffering from developmental delays face delays in cognitive, physical and emotional development.

  • Specific Learning Disability

SLD refers to a condition where a child faces difficulties in basic cognitive skills including their ability to listen, think, read or write. It also includes perceptual disabilities such as dyslexia, brain dysfunction and some kinds of brain injuries.

Vocational education in today’s World

Vocational education can be supplied for a number of courses like journalism, technical, art, animation, management and other techniques. These subjects can be further classified into specialized courses. For demonstration, health can be split up into massage therapy, dietitians, and nutritionist. Any individual can choose any course of his choice and inclinations.

Vocational learning organizations impart graduation and Post graduation courses to students. The best part of the Institution is that even working persons can join the course, and even choose the timings as per their convenience and environment of job. The vocational institution permits the students to study online and join either evening or morning classes. Furthermore, scholarship is also awarded to students who are economically feeble.

The school of these occupational education institutions is highly skilled. They impart functional information to their scholars. As a result the scholars are able to have a genuine and practical functional industry experience. The scholars are furthermore given internships with stipend.

There are various occupational learning organization located all over India. In detail every state has vocational institutes where the inhabitants of the location can profit from the degrees and become part of a focused workforce. Most of these teaching organizations work as per the directions and guidelines of state learning department. It is the learning department of state or the centered government that gives accreditation to a training organization.

An institute is required to follow the rules or else its recognition can be cancelled. It is essential that an individual fulfills the eligibility criteria of the vocational institution. The procedure of getting admission into any occupational organization is very easy and simple. For any comprehensive data you can visit the site and get to understand about the organization and their placement principles. Furthermore, it is essential that the vocational organization that you select should be identified by the concerned learning department. The placement of an institute is an indicator of the value of vocational training organization.

If you think going to a university is difficult then you might consider enrolling in an occupational school. This gives a significant alternative for school for some significant reasons, including the following:

• It engages functional techniques that are on-demand in the business.

• Short-term techniques are available and this means you are going to spend lesser allowance of money and time for school (e.g. 3 to 6 months).

• Economic aids are accessible for qualified students – you can take benefit of this privilege.

• They are usually affiliated to various companies which enables a smooth entry in the industry with the experienced. In detail, an allotment of programs is established based on the current demand in the work market.

As there is a number of Vocational Institution nowadays, it can be a confusing scenario in your part as to which school to select. It is imperative that you are adept to carefully assess your potential schools – if they really fit your exclusive condition.

Here are some tips for you to do that:

• Research – you can do this both online and offline. On the Internet, there is an allotment of helpful vocational school assets.

• Assess the courses suggested – examine if the prospects you have on your register offer the program you want to take up like Mass communication, Fashion Designing, Interior Designing, Animation  etc . Furthermore, the programs you look on the Internet might not be the updated so it is a necessity to verify them offline. You can call their office or you can have a school visit for validation.

• Financial help – as I have mentioned scholarship as well as financial helps are offered in vocational institution so ascertain if your prospects have them. In case they have, work out if you are qualified. Take benefit of this privilege.

5 immediate benefits of vocational training

ocational training program trains a person for a vocation. There are certain vocational training programs that require the interested youth to possess a certain formal education – you must have come across training programs that require the interested participants to be at least graduate or 10th passed or 8th passed? However, most of the vocational training programs do not emphasis on formal education.

What is unique about vocational or technical education is they prepare the participants for the job market. Unlike our formal education system, vocational education is designed to up skill the youth for the job market – particularly for the high growth sectors of the economy. For instance, NSDC funds and facilitates vocational education initiatives across the country and encourages youth to be employable in its recognized 21 sectors including retail, automobile, agriculture, and healthcare.

In a short span of time, vocational education and training has got a lot of attention amid the youth – and there are reasons for that.

The sheer benefits that vocational training or skill development programs tend to offer makes it an enchanting option for the youth. Herein this article, we’ll walk you across top 5 immediate benefits of vocational education and training.

  1. The self-worth, the confidence level goes up – you probably will learn this skill for the first time in your life. You’ll sit and learn with others. You’ll take the test. And you’ll get the certification by the end of the course. This whole journey is likely to help you see yourself in a whole new light and up your confidence level.
  2. You learn something valuable – the program is designed by industry experts. And that’s why you learn the trade in a very systematic manner. By the time you’ll finish the program, you’ll likely be hired by a corporate with a good pay.
  3. You feel positive about future – Our Prime Minister has said many times that the future of India (and world) is in vocational / technical. In the coming years, our country is going to need millions of skilled youth. If you’re skilled, you’re likely to feel a lot positive about your future.
  4. Your people tend to look at you in a different light – when you earn and contribute to your family income, your own people – your family, friends, relatives, and neighbours – begin to see you from a different perspective. You too feel good about yourself.
  5. After finishing the program successfully, you, in most cases, get a job immediately – the leading employers across the country are worried about the shortage of skilled manpower. When you pursue a course in vocational training, your employability quotient goes up and you, in most cases, are likely to be absorbed by a business of your choice.

For more incisive insights on vocational training programs and skill development and management system, you can read our published articles. In our future articles, we’ll dig deeper into the vocational education and what’s needed to make it more appealing among the youth.

Why Vocational Training is the New Trend in Education?

Education over the years has been taking a new turn every now and then. There have new universities set up, new courses introduced and attempts to improve infrastructure in the existing ones is also underway. In such a scenario, there is so much that the students have in mind, which course to go for, which university to attend and so much that one really needs to look into things. This can make them really confused and they really don’t know what to do.

Well, in such a scenario we here try to pay some heed to one of the courses that has evolved over the years and has been one of the favorites of the industry people too. It is called vocational training courses. These vocational training courses are one of the favorite that any one would look forward to because of the various advantages that it has to offer.

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The biggest advantage that these kind of courses offer is on the job training. This is one of the biggest advantages and the most important one as well. On the job training actually is a benefit to both students as well as companies. Students are helped in a way that they actually learn to do the job they will have to do in future once they are placed in the companies. Therefore, they learn it and also understand and most of the times understand how to overcome the challenges they would face once they complete their course. On the other hand, for the industry people as well, the new hiring employees who have just finished their course would already be trained. Therefore, they do not have to worry about their training. The companies this way save big on time and money for the training purpose. Apart from this, the students since they are already trained during their course become direct contributors to the company right from day one. Such employees are always an asset for any company.

Apart from this, other benefits include an internship which the students are required to do during their course. This is a paid internship most of the times and helps them recover most of their course fee during the course itself.

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There are various streams available in which these vocational training courses are available. These are Business, Hospitality, Construction, Electrical, etc. Apart from this, there are prestigious institutes like the Rustomjee Academy of Global Careers which offer such courses and make sure that their students are trained well on the latest technologies helping them make a place for themselves in this competitive world and prove to be an asset for the company also.

Importance Of Group Work in Primary Education and the Role of the Teacher to Manage it

Background:

Historically, the conventional method of teaching and conveying information by a teacher has not been much effective. This one-way method of communicating to the pupils is quite ineffective and sometimes quite boring and unintuitive for the students. Students do not get a chance to express their ideas, viewpoints and thoughts; their ability to interact, knowledge sharing, confidence-level gets narrowed-down.

Student tutelage in a group formation is more preferable as compared to being guided individually, at a tender age and being a social animal it is inclined more in learning in groups and interaction with his/her peers. The first five (5) years of a child life have impacts on his/her learning potential for the rest of his life.

Introduction:

This topic covers the Importance of Group Work in Primary Education and the Role of the Teacher to manage it.Through discussion and argument, I will discuss the value and purpose of group work in the light of research on teaching practices conducted by renowned educationists and the role of the teacher in the organization of group work and planning of appropriate tasks for collaborative work since it requires careful planning and for thought for positive outcomes.  Then I will analyze my own classroom practice and identify my own strengths to manage the group work strategy effectively in the class.

Finally, I will formulate an action plan to overcome all the problems, which few teachers face while managing group work. In the end, I will conclude the whole study in a way, which will show the importance of group work in the better learning of a child.

Discussion and Analysis

Traditionally, a teacher has always been treated as an indemnified personality who leads the whole class, dictating his/her notes and lectures to the students trying to put everything into the minds of the students, this one-way mode of communication has not been that efficient as compared to the new trend of forming different small study groups among the students and they put across their ideas. Effective teachers do understand the effects and outcomes of promoting team-work in their students.  It has been ascertained that the existence of the group in the classroom is not a new phenomena.  According to Kutnick and Rogers (1994), “From earliest recorded writing about education (certainly from Platto and Socrates), learning used to take place in a group context. Hence, the importance of social interaction in learning can not be overlooked” (P.2)

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The idea of group work carries with it a vision of students talking to each other, sharing, reshaping and refining their ideologies and concepts.  It means those children’s enthusiasm and consequently learning opportunities increase with in-group situations, both cooperative and collaborative. Moyles (1992) also cites Cullingford (1991) about children’s preferences for teaching strategies “Of all styles of classroom organization, the possibility of working with some one else seems to them one of the most important, not because they just enjoy working with a friend but because they can receive help, give help and exchange ideas.” (p.124)

Group work provides students within an opportunity to assimilate their knowledge through discussion with their peers, hence supporting each other’s learning.

It has also been observed that young students very often in the classroom do not have the opportunity to develop their listening and speaking skills in whole class situation.  This have been stated in hand –out ‘Use of Language: A Common  Approach’ issued by School Curriculum and Assessment Authority which says that the amount of time any individual pupil can speak in a whole class situation is limited, so group discussions can increase the opportunities for talk and encourage pupil’s to organize their own discussion.  Thus, it is through discussions in a group that students develop a better ability to listen and accept others opinions and develop confidence in expressing their own views by speaking with clarity.  Wells (1985) states that al children learn most activities when there are frequent opportunities of collaborative talk with teachers and fellow pupil’s.  Therefore, this proved that while engage in-group work, students in a way take charge of their own learning.

Group size and type of group is also a very important factor in a learning process of a child. As far as group size and structure is concerned its teachers ability and competency that how she divides children equally according to the level of the task and their mental ability in this way students support, each other listens to each other and even corporate in finding the solutions of different problem which are given to them for discussion and for writing.  According to Kyriacou (1991), “the setting up of group work activities involves a number of decisions about the logistics of their organization.  First the size of the group and how groups are to formed, second the nature of the task third the aspect of group work concerns the teacher monitoring, forth the clear time management and the group work activities”. (p.58)

The role of the teacher in this case is, one of directing the students, facilitating and monitoring their learning process.   It is commonly seen that the students in a class have different attitudes and strengths.  Therefore, the teacher is a person, who shows acceptance of children, praises each child’s strengths and recognizes each child’s uniqueness by planning purposeful task having clarity of goals and way it is presented to groom their abilities.  In this regard, Cordon (2000) has outlined the duties of the teacher during group task.  He states, that during the tasks the teacher should introduce the activity and establish a collaborative working climate; by clarifying expected outcomes.  The teacher should be ensured that children had a clear understanding of the ground rule for the group work, respective rules and interdependency.

Hence, it proves that although group-work is a student-centered approach but the teacher still has to play a lead role in that, the teacher’s role acts as a beacon for his/her pupils.  She has, in fact the central role in the whole process of group work.  It is her responsibility to plan activities in such a way that children could work effectively in groups under the guidance of their teacher.  Cordon (2000) cities Lyle (1993) who points to the importance of teachers encouraging children to see themselves as responsible learners by designing the activities, which ensure children pose questions, make observations and contribute opinions. (p.195)

After knowing the importance of group work, I analyzed my role as a primary teacher to implement effective group work in my class.  I have always felt that very young students attain better outcome if we give them opportunity to interact with their peers in their classroom and to discuss the task. Hence, according to the purpose and objectives of the lesson I have tried to make use of group work in my classroom in order to develop the students’ communicative and explorative skills.    In the feedback session that followed, I emphasized to see the variety and depth of ideas.  The group came up with such brilliant points, which were because of the exchange of different ideas with each other.   Therefore, I observed, the outcomes of segregating my students in different small study-groups were more result-oriented and the students did their assigned tasks vigorously and in a better way.

Students of kindergarten were somewhat accustomed to group work strategy since they had been introduced to group work in the previous class.  Therefore, I did not face much problem in the organization of group work activities.  Initially, I made use of friendship grouping because student felt more secure working with their friends (according to Galton and Williamson (1992) many primary teachers regularly group by friendship, because these groups are more than the seating arrangements.  It also fosters collaboration and cooperative learning setup).   Once they started enjoying working in groups, then gradually, I started sorting them into mix ability groups with usually high to low or middle ability and high or middle to low ability members.  This has worked quiet well since the clever student tends to pull the slow learners along with them as well and therefore providing all students an equal opportunity to extend their ideas.

Suggested Action plan for Teachers to Manage the Effective Group Work:

Therefore, teachers who are still following the conventional methods of teaching should make a habit of creating small study-groups in the primary classes, which is quite evident in light of different researches in the following ways:

  • They should plan a task for each group which should be challenging, time-bound and most importantly should have a relevance to the level of the students
  • Make sure that the group face across at each other and that they can all hear each other
  • For newly formed groups, in order to break the ice among them, we can assign them different roles to play so that they should start interacting with each other quickly
  • They should be ready to accept the challenge of the group-refuses, and should proactively plan to cope with such situations
  • They should create the groups keeping in mind these things comparable ability, mixed ability, friendship, gender etc.

Conclusion:

As a result of my study, I now understand that group work increases pupils’ ability to cooperate and learn from others, thus enable them to take responsibility of their own learning and reducing reliance on the teacher. However, in this casethe role of a teacher is to organize an environment that facilitates cooperative and collaborative learning.  This happens by providing all students an opportunity to be equally involved in the social and cognitive activities and to stimulate, realign and invoke the thought-provoking behaviors among students.4

The Importance Of Pre Primary Education

Pre-school education is essential for your toddler because it is the building block of your child’s elementary education. It helps in laying down a healthy foundation for the all-round development of your child. It is necessary to provide your child with good pre-primary education for him to be prepared for future education. Here are some reasons why your little one should be provided with good nursery education.

Pre-primary education prepares your child for kindergarten and future school. It allows your child to build a base for his future education.

It allows the child to expose his inner skills so that the child develops his personality. It allows a child to give vent to his inner desires in positive ways. Some pre-school franchisees have activities designed for children in such a way that their inner talents are exposed.

Pre-primary education exposes the creativity of the child, thus allowing the child to develop his personality in a natural way.

The child learns to adjust with his peers and learns to interact with outsiders. He learns to find a life outside of his home. The child develops an independent personality outside of his home. Becoming independent is the first stage of growth and besides learning to eat independently, sleep independently, child learns to exist independently.

It is essential to the growth of the child that by the age of three, it starts showing signs of independence.

A good pre-primary school like Little Millennium comes to your aid here. Their scientific curriculum ensures the all-round development of the child. Your child is well on his way to attending kindergarten and regular school.

Pre-schools like Little Millennium who have franchisees all over India, ensure the physical, mental and emotional growth of the child. The child develops his cognitive skills in the scientific curriculum that nurtures the child.

Good pre-schools teach a child not only social skills and develop its ability to adjust in its social environment but also teach it how to deal with bullies. Your child may be facing bullies in his pre-school, but may not be telling you about it. Find out whether your child is hesitant to go to school. Does it try and avoid school. The reason could be there is a bully at the school. Good pre-primary schools, ensure that bullies are not scaring other children so that they avoid school.

Pre-primary schools are also responsible for teaching social etiquettes to your child. Some of the group activities involve teaching manners and etiquettes to your child.

The group activities that nursery schools conduct are what develops the complete personality of your child. The children may be taken on field trips, where they are taught the importance of discipline. The children also learn to eat independently and many are also potty trained by this age, so they know how to handle themselves to an extent.

Pre-primary education is one more step in the growth of your child. For your child to grow into a healthy, socially well-adjusted child and individual, it is essential that you send him to a good nursery school.

Physical Education Teacher Jobs – Career Explained

Physical education teacher jobs are not necessarily the first position people think of when they think of teaching careers, but for many people it is the ideal way to combine a love of physical sport and a love of teaching into one job. There are many career options for physical education teachers around the country, and the economic outlook for this job is good. If you are interested in physical education teacher jobs it is a good idea to get as much career information as possible before moving forward.

The degrees needed for physical education teacher jobs are pretty much the same as those for other teaching jobs. You will need a bachelor’s degree in a related field and a valid teacher certification. PE teachers often get bachelor’s degrees in physical education, athletic training or a related field, after which they must complete the teacher credentialing program. You may also use this degree to go into coaching, personal training, physical therapy or other athletic type jobs, so your career options will be open if you decide the PE teaching job isn’t right for you.

You probably want to know about the salary and job outlook for physical education career jobs, and the good news is that the future looks good for these teaching professionals. The current median salary for PE teachers is between $43,000 and $49,000, and there is an expected 12 percent growth in the number of available jobs over the next several years according to The Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Physical education teacher jobs involve educating children, typically in middle and high school, on the tenets of exercise, healthy living and physical fitness. If you go into this career you will be responsible for organizing athletic activities for the kids, supervising them throughout the class period and monitoring their progress. There are also physical education teacher jobs in elementary schools in many districts, so whether you prefer working with younger kids or young adults there should be a job opening for you. Physical education teacher jobs are an ideal choice if you love kids and are passionate about physical fitness.

Physical Education Importance

Education in the care and development of the human body, stressing athletics and including hygiene is called physical education. Physical education is an important part of educational activity in which the main concern is with bodily movements and which takes place in an educational establishment. Physical Education aims not only at physical development but is also concerned with education of the whole personality of a person’s behavior, organic, aesthetic, neuromuscular, ethics and emotion etc.

Different people define physical education importance in different words:

1. Jackson R. Sharman points out that physical education is that part of education which takes place through activities, which involves the motor mechanism of human body which results in an individual’s formulating behavior patterns.

2. Charles A. Bucher defines physical education, an integral part of total education process, is a field of endeavour which has as its aim the development of physically, mentally, emotionally and socially fit citizens through the medium of physical activities which have been selected with a view to realizing these outcomes.”

3. Barrow defined Physical Education as an education of and through human movement where many of educational objectives are achieved by means of big muscle activities involving sports, games, gymnastic, dance and exercise.

4. According to Webster’s Dictionary Physical education is a part of education which gives instructions in the development and care of the body randing from simple callisthenic exercises to a course of study providing training in hygiene, gymnastics and the performance and management of athletics games.

5. Central Advisory Board of physical Education and Recreation defines Physical education as an education through physical activities for the development of total personality of the child to its fullness and perfection in body, mind and spirit.

Importance and benefits of physical education

Physical fitness is one of the most important factors for the living with a healthy lifestyle. Physical education promotes the importance of regular fitness activity in the routine and also helps the students to maintain their fitness, develop their muscular strength, increase their stamina and thus stretch their physical abilities to an optimum level.

In the present world, the world of technology, most of us are living inactive life style. We ride instead of walk, sit instead of stand and watches instead of participants. Such type of inactivity or sedentary life is damaging to mental and physical health. Thus, physical education is most important as a part of balanced healthy living.

1. Physical education is essential during elementary & secondary education for the proper

growth and development of student.

2. To maintain good health and fitness during adulthood physical education is very

Helpful.

3. During old Age, physical education is important to prevent and treat various ailments

and disease.

4. To prevent and treat various ailments and disease in old age physical education is very      beneficial.

5. It is important as it provides us the knowledge of our bodies from musculoskeletal,

physiological and biochemical point of view.

6- physical education aware we about our bodies from musculoskeletal, physiological and     biochemical point of view.

7. It teaches us various physical activities that can be practiced now in later life such

as motor skills for the games and sports of volleyball, tennis, swimming and so on.

8- We thought Value of ethical behavior in all part of life by physical education.

9. Physical education teaches us the importance of physical fitness and how to become

physically fit.

10. It is important for aesthetic reasons as by take part in physical fitness programs

like gymnastics and dance, beauty and grace in cultivated in the movement.

11. It is also important for catharsis reasons with mean releasing of energy, emotion,

tension or frustration and some people let off their extra steam by participating various

games and sports which are part of physical education.

This way physical education helps us in all parts of our life.

Physical Education Generated A Special Stream Of Physiotherapy

Since, physical education developed and spread all over the country as a different stream, physiotherapy also developed.  Before the development of physical education, it was not considered that physiotherapy should be taught separately.  It was a part of biology.  Later educationalists and scientists have decided to enhance the corners of human study and a need was felt of specialised education for human physique and faster remedial measures to get back body in physical action.  Various courses like B.P.T. and M.P.T. were designed.  Though, the duration of these courses is different.  B.P.T. is a graduation course and lasts for three years like other graduations streams. Likewise post graduation in this stream requires 2 years.

Various Physiotherapy colleges are providing graduation and post graduation courses in this stream.  These colleges are providing detailed education in all the courses like Orthopaedics, Neurology, Sports and Cardiopulmonary.  A person who possess B.P.T. with minimum 50% marks, is eligible to join M.P.T. course and likewise a student is having higher secondary certificate with science stream (bio stream) is eligible to enter B.P.T. course.  In Ghaziabad, you can get admission in reputed physiotherapy college.

 

Management student’s placement

Various colleges are available in Delhi which is giving placement to the BBA student in reputed companies.  This is being done just because of saving the employment. Many student needs employment just after finishing their BBA.  It has been experienced that companies prefer only those MBAs who have don’t their graduation in same stream.  The students who came from other streams and done MBA are normally not preferred by companies.  A lot of companies are functioning, which like only MBAs and they give professional training of managing the business at their ends.  In this scenario, Placement after BBA becomes beneficial as this saves additional 2 years in studies and till that time a student gains experience of the business as well as financial benefits too.

 

It is recommended that the students, ambitious to do MBA, should do BBA for better specialisation.  Students should select better colleges where studies as well as placement facilities are better.  Sure placement facilities inspire students to complete their education in well manner so that they can become a good professional.

It is recommended that the students, ambitious to do MBA, should do BBA for better specialisation.  Students should select better colleges where studies as well as placement facilities are better.  Sure placement facilities inspire students to complete their education in well manner so that they can become a good professional.

Philippines’ Department of Education Weekend Getaway

On deciding whether to commend or disagree with DepEd’s No Homework on Weekends Policy, one should get in the mind of a public school student.

Spending quality time with the family

can be done in any day in any way.

The average student would be overjoyed by the freedom that he is given during homework-free weekends. He could do all that he wants to do because he’s not complied to do anything by the school. During Friday nights, he could go out with his friends and have some fun. It’s friday after all; aside from there’s no school tomorrow, there’s no homework! Saturdays would be spent in front of the telly, eating, sleeping, gaming, etc. Sundays…well, go to church perhaps.

I know this sounds not the ideal weekend getaway, but DepEd is dealing with the average public school student. I may be doing a faulty generalization and sterotyping here, but get real! How many adolescents actually spend quality time with their parents given that they have the weekend off. How many of them actually have their parents with them, not in a distant country spending time with their employers’ children? A memorandum cannot tell a family to spend quality time together. Spending quality time with the family can be done in any day in any way.

Still, I do agree with the policy. Why? I think that giving the weekends homework free is a chance for students to try their own interests and hone their individual skills (that may not be addressed by the School). By this, they may realize how much fun learning could be. This way, their characters are also shaped. By allowing them to learn different things, they discover themselves more. But what are the chances that students would actually opt to do something productive during their free time?

This idea is only possible when students realize the value of learning. And teachers have a great responsibility in this (that’s why they’re called teachers; they teach), along with the family. Isn’t it quality time when parents actually help their children in learning just about any thing and in discovering what they like?

The matter to be solved here is the concept of a quality weekend.

Staffing Solutions and Needs for Special Education and Others

Occupational Therapy Staffing Needs : Occupational Therapy is designed for people of all age groups. This is a support facility intended to provide aid to a person who is either not feeling confident in social interactions or has gone through an accident and lost the ability to perform a skill. This therapeutic aid also helps aged people who are going through physical changes in their lives. This therapy supports these souls in gaining or regaining the zeal towards life which they lost somehow. It is evident that therapy of this kind requires utmost care, patience and love. Under common circumstances, these people do not require medical aid and can perform the everyday activities only by getting emotional support. In a way, the services performed by occupational therapy staff are rather an act of kindness. Due to the reasons mentioned above it is important to employ people who genuinely care about people and do not think of this job as merely a source of getting a salary. Recruitment is a tough job as it is and if you add attributes such as humanity, love, care and other emotional qualities and you have got yourself an almost impossible task. The increase in stress in our daily lives keeps us all on edge and just a little push can get us an emotional breakdown. Therefore, the need of occupational therapy professionals is increasing every day but the availability of these folks is very limited. And this makes recruitment task even more cumbersome.

Thanks to the Occupational Therapy Staffing Agencies the recruitment process of this area has improved a lot. Advocate Search Group specializes in this domain and you can count on the agencies of the like to ease your life. They have a good chunk of choices for you. You can be assured of getting genuinely kind guys from them.
Speech Pathology Staffing Needs : Living with a speech disability is full of hardships. Speech disability may include lisp or stutter issues, delay in speech, fluency disorders, resonance disorders, swallowing problems etc. This is a significant disorder and needs immediate attention of a professional. Hiring of a skilled pathologist to help with this disorder requires excellent knowledge of required educational background. One needs to make sure that only a skilled candidate is considered and not a fluke because this is a sensitive problem and requires undivided attention and perfect diagnosis to help the patient.

Only a few agencies help with recruitment of speech pathologists. Advocate Search Group is one of these agencies which has a pool full of the specialists in this field.

Special Education Staffing Needs: Special education includes subjects which are different from the ordinary such as nursing education. Various positions available in this field are mentioned below:

Assistant Professor of Special Education –

1. Emphasis in Early Childhood Special Education

2. Coordinator of Disability Support Services

3. High School Special Education English Teacher

4. Response to Intervention Coach

5. Preschool Special Education Teacher

6. Tenure-Track Assistant

And the list goes on. Fortunately, there are Staffing Agencies to help with your requirement.

All said and done it is always a good idea to take help of experts with the hectic task of hiring.

Classifying Special Education Schools

It is often said that every child is special and unique. This is the reason why a ‘one-size-fits-all’ educational program doesn’t fit special needs children. Appropriate planning and support can make your special needs child’s school experience, a positive one. There are several different types of schools providing special education programs in New York that cater to the needs of children with learning disabilities.

The types of special education schools

Full Inclusion Classrooms

In this type of setting, the child learns alongside other children that do not have a learning disability. This is done with the help of a special education teacher, who remains present alongside the “regular” teacher throughout the school day. This approach doesn’t single out the special needs child, but rather allows them to learn at their own pace and level. The same tasks and instructions are shared by all of the students in a full inclusion classroom.

Self-Contained Classrooms

Self-contained classrooms are designed to promote one-on-one interaction between special needs children. These classes group together small number of children with similar learning requirements. Spending ample time with peers is an important part of educating children with learning disabilities. Due to this, children enrolled in self-contained classrooms share equal time in a regular classroom each day.

The enrolled number of children within a class can vary depending on the size of the school, the ages of the students as well as their mental abilities. These classrooms can help children keep up with their grade-level work.

Out-of-District Placement

Out-of-District placement programs are often the best option when a special-needs child requires a higher level of classroom structure and instruction. These classrooms can be conducted in a residential area, a privately owned space, or in a public special education school. Families looking to enroll their special needs children to an out of district placement program are required to go through a proper application procedure first, in order to participate in such programs, that are supported through funding from the State Education Department of New York.

Private Special Education Schools

Those children who are not comfortable with any other type of special education program, can enroll in private specialized programs that cater to special needs children. These private educational services often cater to the needs of infants, toddlers, and even adults. It is suggested to visit and spend some time at a private school program where you are planning to enroll your kid. This will provide you with a first-hand experience at the schoo, and help you decide whether the school’s environment, activities, curriculum, opportunities, and conditions are appropriate to meet the needs of your child.

Why vocational education in Africa has to be engaging and rewarding?

In our previous articles, we have spoken a lot about the vocational education landscape in Africa, why it needs an upgrade, and why Africa cannot do without a skilled workforce.

But one thing that we really have not spoken about is ‘the way vocational education should be taken to the students’. And this is important.

Because, education – whether it is formal or vocational – has to be engaging and rewarding, else it wouldn’t interest the students.

Most of us are formally educated and have been in classes when we were bored to death because we either did not like the subject, or the topic that was being discussed, or the teacher failed to make the learning interesting and innovative.

This is probably the biggest challenge Africa has to tackle if it is to hook the students in the vocational stream.

We have to make vocational education and training engaging and appealing to its target audience – school kids, college kids, and those who have opted for higher vocational/technical courses.

We need to get innovative, new-age professional companies on board

Schools, colleges, and even corporates can partner with vocational education and trainingcompanies to strengthen their courses and make them more appealing to the students.

Our kids are our future, and so is vocational education and training

We have talked about it. Africa cannot do much unless it is supported by a vast base of skilled workforce. And skilling the youth wouldn’t be possible unless we make vocational/technical education interesting and engaging.

We have to do it right from the schools.

Formal education is amazing. But we also need to realize that we have to promote vocational education as well, if we are to make a cut in the global arena.

Corporates can play a role here. All they need to do is engage with training companies that can help them make the most of their corporate social responsibility companies. For example, a refinery or a manufacturing business can partner with a training company to up skill the youth in and around its region for job roles either in its own business unit or in other high growth sectors. This way, companies will not only meet their CSR obligations, but also make a remarkable impact on the society it operates in. Moreover, they can create a pool of skilled workforce for their own business operations.

Coming back to the point, things would not change much, if we do not work on the vocational education content and its delivery. We need to make it a point that the content is student friendly and teachers are using the most effective delivery methods while interacting with the students.

African countries have taken up the challenge of creating a workforce that is skilled and can add to the economic engines of their countries. For more tips on making vocational education engaging and the importance of vocational training in Kenya, please read our published posts.

Vocational education and training – get skilled, earn more

Sunil was unemployed for 2 years. Though he was a graduate, he couldn’t find good employment opportunities. For long, he wasn’t sure about what to do, and how to support his family.

One morning, he met his childhood friend – Suresh. They talked for a long time. Sunil shared his problems with him. Though Suresh was a little surprised with the state of Sunil and that he couldn’t find a job despite being a graduate, he did tell Sunil something that would soon change his course of life.

Suresh told Sunil about the opportunities in vocational sector and that he can easily take up a program of his choice. These programs were either free of cost or would charge a nominal fee. Sunil approached a vocational training and education center and enrolled for a course in telecom industry. The course was for a short term. He was taught about telecom towers management and repairs. Soon, Sunil was hired by a leading company. Today, Sunil is happy and earning a good income for his family. Ask him and he cannot thank Suresh and vocational education much.

Vocational education and training – and what’s in it for you?

Whether you’re a school dropout or a graduate or a post-graduate, there’s a program for you. These programs help you become familiar with certain trades in high growth sectors such as retail, automobile, insurance, etc.

Large organisations like NSDC have been set-up by government to promote vocational education and training in the country. The central idea is to help more and more youth become vocationally talented and earn for their families. NSDC even planned a campaign to educate youth to take up vocational programs – the creative campaign was named Hunar Hai Toh Kadar Hai – which means ‘with skills comes respect’.
The future is likely to be more rewarding for those who are skilled and smart. Billions of dollars of investments from foreign companies will create more skills-based jobs in the country. And since we don’t have sufficient skilled workforce, the demand cannot possibly be fulfilled – and this will make skilled labour all the more desirable. As per an estimate, the incremental human resource requirement across 24 high growth sectors of India is nearly 119 million (11 crore 90 lakh).

India is among a few countries which are blessed with the most population in the working age group. But this alone cannot guarantee us success – we’ve to harness this resource by skilling them. NSDC has been doing commendable job – it’s partnering with training companies across the country and also leading India’s participation at WorldSkills International since 2011.

The youth and their families also have to understand that vocational education and training programs aren’t just for those who’re not academically talented – vocation oriented courses and programs are for all. Go and take up a program because Hunar Hai Toh Kadar Hai.

For more incisive articles on vocational education and training programs, read our published articles. We’re planning to write some more articles on Hunar Hai Toh Kadar Hai concept that caught the imagination of the youth and incremental human resource requirement of India’s high growth sector. So stay connected.